This paper devises a framework of phased array antennas to radiate multiple beams for a fixed coverage. The phased antenna array is chosen so that the beamforming can be fixed in selected coverage area. The antenna arrays are employed with a Butler matrix (BM) to form required phases of excitation coefficients to the radiating elements. Optimally designed 4×4 or 8×8 Butler matrix is utilized at the I/O ports of the phased antenna array. The grating lobes are reduced by using the principle of orthogonality to the feeds of subarray (group of column arrays of phased array). This article also exploits the concept of skirt elements to reach the desired coverage area while reducing the beam overlapping in the restricted area. Simulation studies highlight the proposed claims with elaborated numerical analysis of different case studies.
Tumma Divya Vani,
Konidala Ratna Subhashini,
"Design Approach of Multibeam Using Phased Array Antenna Aided with Butler Matrix for a Fixed Coverage Area," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B,
Vol. 80, 133-149, 2018. doi:10.2528/PIERB18011012
1. Schulwitz, L. and A. Mortazawi, "A compact dual-polarized multibeam phased-array architecture for millimeter-wave radar," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., Vol. 53, No. 11, 3588-3594, Nov. 2005. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2005.857104
2. Jacomb-Hood, A. and E. Lier, "Multibeam active phased arrays for communications satellites," IEEE Microw. Mag., Vol. 1, No. 4, 40-47, Dec. 2000. doi:10.1109/6668.893245
3. Wang, J., Y. Fang, and D.-P.Wu, "Enhancing the performance of medium access control for WLANs with multi-beam access point," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., Vol. 6, No. 2, 556-565, Feb. 2007. doi:10.1109/TWC.2007.05245
4. Chou, Z.-T., C.-Q. Huang, and J. M. Chang, "OoS provisioning for wireless LANs with multi-beam access point," IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., Vol. 13, No. 9, 2113-2127, Sep. 2014. doi:10.1109/TMC.2013.85
5. Fonseca, N. J. G. and J. Sombrin, "Multi-beam reflector antenna system combining beam hopping and size reduction of effectively used spots," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 54, No. 2, 88-89, Apr. 2012. doi:10.1109/MAP.2012.6230720
6. Chou, H.-T., "An efficient synthesis approach for electromagnetic nearand far-field contoured patterns using alternative narrow-beam field functions transformed from the radiations of linearly excited array antennas with least computational complexity," Radio Sci., Vol. 50, No. 5, 365-380, 2015. doi:10.1002/2014RS005590
7. Moody, H., "The systematic design of the Butler Matrix," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 12, No. 6, 786-788, Nov. 1964. doi:10.1109/TAP.1964.1138319
8. Denidni, T. A. and T. E. Libar, "Wide band four-port Butler Matrix for switched multibeam antenna arrays," Proc. IEEE Pers., Indoor, Mobile Radio Commun., Vol. 3, 2461-2464, Sep. 2003.
9. Kozuki, Y. and H. Arai, "Layered Butler Matrix circuit for vertical multi beam of cellular base station antenna," Proc. Int. Symp. Antennas Propag., 561-562, Dec. 2014.
10. Mosca, S., F. Bilotti, A. Toscano, and L. Vegni, "A novel design method for Blass matrix beamforming networks," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 50, No. 2, 225-232, Feb. 2002. doi:10.1109/8.997999
11. Varghese, K. J., A. K. Singh, and S. Christopher, "Experimental characterisation of Moreno cross slot couplers for Blass matrix design," Defence Sci. J., Vol. 48, No. 4, 413-416, 2013. doi:10.14429/dsj.48.3967
12. Neto, A., M. Ettorre, G. Gerini, and P. De Maagt, "Leaky wave enhanced feeds for multibeam reflectors to be used for telecom satellite based links," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 1, 110-120, Jan. 2012. doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2167909
13. Fujita, M., K. Takano, S. Tanaka, Y. Utsumi, and T. Murata, "Experimental results on multi-beam receiving antenna for satellite broadcasting," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Phased Array Syst. Technol., 117-120, May 2000.
14. Ramanujam, P. and L. R. Fermelia, "Recent developments on multi-beam antennas at Boeing," Proc. 8th Eur. Conf. Antennas Propag. (EuCAP), 405-409, Apr. 2014.
15. Ebling, J. P., G. M. Rebeiz, and B. Schoenlinner, "Multi-beam antenna," U.S. Patent 7 042 420, May 9, 2006.
16. Thornton, J., A. White, and D. Gray, "Multi-beam lens-reflector for satellite communications: Construction issues and ground plane effects," Proc. 3rd Eur. Conf. Antennas Propag. (EuCAP), 1377-1380, Mar. 2009.
17. Zhang, Y. S. and W. Hong, "A millimeter-wave gain enhanced multibeam antenna based on a coplanar cylindrical dielectric lens," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 7, 3485-3488, Jul. 2012. doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2194646
18. Van Veen, B. D., D. Barry, and K. M. Buckley, "Beamforming: A versatile approach to spatial filtering," IEEE ASSP Magazine, Vol. 5, No. 2, 4-24, 1988. doi:10.1109/53.665
19. Rahmat-Samii, Y. and S.-W. Lee, "Directivity of planar array feeds for satellite reflector applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 31, No. 3, 463-470, May 1983. doi:10.1109/TAP.1983.1143061
20. Wang, J., Y. Fang, and D.-P.Wu, "Enhancing the performance of medium access control for WLANs with multi-beam access point," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., Vol. 6, No. 2, 556-565, Feb. 2007. doi:10.1109/TWC.2007.05245
21. Chou, Z.-T., C.-Q. Huang, and J. M. Chang, "OoS provisioning for wireless LANs with multi-beam access point," IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., Vol. 13, No. 9, 2113-2127, Sep. 2014. doi:10.1109/TMC.2013.85
22. Ueno, M., "A systematic design formulation for Butler Matrix applied FFT algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 29, No. 3, 496-501, May 1981. doi:10.1109/TAP.1981.1142601
23. Sheltont, J. P. and K. S. Kelleherz, "Multiple beams from linear arrays," IRE Transaction on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 9, No. 2, 154-161, 1961. doi:10.1109/TAP.1961.1144964
24. Chou, H.-T., "An Effective design procedure of multibeam phased array antennas for multisatellite communications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 64, No. 10, 4218-4227, Oct. 2016. doi:10.1109/TAP.2016.2565680
25. Yazdanbakhsh, P. and K. Solbach, "Microstrip Butler Matrix design and realization for 7 T MRI," Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 66, No. 1, 270-280, 2011. doi:10.1002/mrm.22777
26. Khan, O. U., "Design of X-band 4×4 Butler Matrix for microstrip patch antenna array," TENCON 2006, 2006 IEEE Region 10 Conference, IEEE, 2006.
27. Alam, M. M., "Microstrip antenna array with four port Butler Matrix for switched beam base station application," 12th International Conference on Computers and Information Technology, 2009, ICCIT’09, IEEE, 2009.
28. Fakoukakis, F. E., et al., "Design and implementation of Butler matrix-based beam-forming networks for low sidelobe level electronically scanned arrays," International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, Vol. 7, No. 1, 69-79, 2015. doi:10.1017/S1759078714000403
29. Muhammad, N. A., et al., "Beam forming networks using reduced size Butler Matrix," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 63, No. 4, 765-784, 2012. doi:10.1007/s11277-010-0164-8
30. Zhai, Y., et al., "Miniaturization design for 8 × 8 Butler matrix based on back-to-back bilayer microstrip," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2014, 2014.
31. Fonseca, N. J. G., "Printed S-band 4 × 4 nolen matrix for multiple beam antenna applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 6, 1673-1678, 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2019919
32. Garcia-Rodriguez, A., et al., "Hybrid analog-digital precoding revisited under realistic RF modeling," IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, Vol. 5, No. 5, 528-531, 2016. doi:10.1109/LWC.2016.2598777
33. Jayakrishnan, V. M. and S. K. Menon, "Realization of butlermatrix for beamforming in phased array system," Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 93, 223-229, 2016. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2016.07.204