This paper proposes a wearable antenna for Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that operates at the 2.45 GHz medical band. The antenna is enabled by coplanar waveguide, and the impedance bandwidth of the antenna is expanded by combining a circular slot with asymmetric slots. In order to reduce the radiation of the antenna back lobe and improve the antenna gain, a new 2×2 Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) is designed and loaded under the monopole antenna. The radiation of antenna back lobe is effectively reduced due to the addition of AMC reflector. Also, the front-to-back ratio of the demonstrated antenna is higher than 20 dB, achieving a forward gain of 7.47 dBi and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) lower than 0.15 W/kg, in the ISM band.For further research, the antenna is fabricated and tested, showing a strong agreement between simulation and measurement. Meanwhile, the antenna has stable performance under the bending condition, meeting the practical application requirements of wearable equipment.
1. Astrin, A. W., H. B. Li, and R. Kohno, "Standardization for body area networks," IEICE Transactions Communications, Vol. E92-B, No. 2, 366-372, 2009. doi:10.1587/transcom.E92.B.366
2. Li, M., W. Lou, and K. Ren, "Data security and privacy in wireless body area networks," IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 17, No. 1, 51-58, 2010. doi:10.1109/MWC.2010.5416350
3. Karaoguz, J., "High-rate wireless personal area networks," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 39, No. 12, 96-102, 2001. doi:10.1109/35.968818
4. Declercq, F., , H. Rogier, and C. Hertleer, "Permittivity and loss tangent characterization for garment antennas based on a new matrix-pencil two-line method," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 8, 2548-2554, 2008. doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.927556
5. Samal, P. B., J. S. Ping, and G. A. E. Vandenbosch, "UWB all-textile antenna with full ground plane for off-body WBAN communications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 1, 102-108, 2014. doi:10.1109/TAP.2013.2287526
6. Yan, S., P. J. Soh, and A. E. V. Guy, "Wearable dual-band magneto-electric dipole antenna for WBAN/WLAN applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 63, No. 9, 4165-4169, 2015. doi:10.1109/TAP.2015.2443863
7. Simorangkir, R. B. V. B., A. Kiourti, and K. Esselle, "UWB wearable antenna with full ground plane based on PDMS-embedded conductive fabric," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 17, No. 3, 493-496, 2018. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2018.2797251
8. Agarwal, K., Y. X. Guo, and B. Salam, "Wearable AMC backed near-endfire antenna for on-body communications on latex substrate," IEEE Transactions on Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 346-358, 2017. doi:10.1109/TCPMT.2016.2521487
9. Gaetano, D., et al., "Footwear antennas for body area telemetry," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 10, 4908-4916, 2013. doi:10.1109/TAP.2013.2272451
10. Kwak, S. I., et al., "Design of PIFA with metamaterials for body-SAR reduction in wearable applications," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 59, No. 1, 297-300, 2017. doi:10.1109/TEMC.2016.2593493
11. Jiang, Z. H., et al., "A compact, low-profile metasurface-enabled antenna for wearable medical body-area network devices," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 8, 4021-4030, 2014. doi:10.1109/TAP.2014.2327650
12. Raad, H. R., et al., "Flexible and compact AMC based antenna for telemedicine applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 2, 524-531, 2013. doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2223449
13. Ashyap, A. Y. I., et al., "Robust low-profile electromagnetic band-gap- based on textile wearable antennas for medical application," International Workshop on Antenna Technology: Small Antennas, Innovative Structures, and Applications, 158-161, IEEE, 2017. doi:10.1109/IWAT.2017.7915346
14. Di, Y. H., X. Y. Liu, and M. M. Tentzeris, "A conformable dual-band antenna equipped with AMC for WBAN applications," Antennas & Propagation, 388-391, IEEE, 2014.
15. Gabriel, C., S. Gabriel, and R. W. Lau, "The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey," Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 41, No. 11, 2231-2249, 1996. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/001