An electrically small ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna to cater to the need for UWB communication suitable for today's small gadgets is presented. The antenna is realized on a substrate of relative dielectric permittivity 4.4, loss tangent 0.02 and height 1.6 mm. The overall dimension of the antenna is 21 mm×16 mm×1.6 mm (0.217λmin×0.165λmin×0.0165λmin), where λmin is the wavelength corresponding to the antenna's lowest operating frequency in free-space 3.1 GHz). The small `kmina' value of 0.856 of the antenna, where kmin is the wavenumber corresponding to λmin, and `a' is the radius of the sphere that can fully enclose the antenna, is electrically small. The antenna operates at the FCC recommended UWB frequency range from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz with a reasonably good 2:1 voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) impedance bandwidth. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated, and different radiation characteristics of the antenna in the frequency and time domain are measured and validated by simulation. The high pulse fidelity for different antenna orientations and very small group delay in the operating frequency band exhibit insignificant pulse distortion. The equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of the antenna satisfies the FCC mask in the entire UWB. The maximum gain and efficiency achieved within the UWB are 3.95 dBi and 93% respectively. Radiation characteristics of the antenna in the UWB are studied in an anechoic chamber using Agilent PNA E 8362B.
2. Mohandoss, S., R. R. Thipparaju, B. N. Balarami Reddy, S. K. Palaniswamy, and P. Marudappa, "Fractal based ultra-wideband antenna development for wireless personal area communication applications," AEU --- Int. J. Electron. Commun., Vol. 93, 95-102, Sep. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2018.06.009
3. Zong, W.-H., et al., "A compact slot antenna for UWB applications," 2016 IEEE MTT-S International Wireless Symposium (IWS), 1-4, 2016.
4. Abdelraheem, A. M. and M. A. Abdalla, "Compact curved half circular disc-monopole UWB antenna," Int. J. Microw. Wirel. Technol., Vol. 8, No. 2, 283-290, Mar. 2016. doi:10.1017/S1759078714001524
5. Hossain, M. J., M. R. I. Faruque, and M. T. Islam, "Design of a patch antenna for ultra wide band applications," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 58, No. 9, 2152-2156, Sep. 2016. doi:10.1002/mop.29993
6. Chu, L. J., "Physical limitations of omni-directional antennas," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 19, No. 12, 1163-1175, Dec. 1948. doi:10.1063/1.1715038
7. Oraizi, H. and B. Rezaei, "Improvement of antenna radiation efficiency by the suppression of surface waves," J. Electromagn. Anal. Appl., Vol. 3, No. 3, 79-83, 2011.
8. Allen, B., M. Dohler, E. E. Okon, W. Q. Malik, A. K. Brown, and D. J. Edwards, Ultra-wideband, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006. doi:10.1002/0470056843
9. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 4th Ed., Wiley, 1997.
10. Wiesbeck, W., G. Adamiuk, and C. Sturm, "Basic properties and design principles of UWB antennas," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 97, No. 2, 372-385, Feb. 2009. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2008.2008838
11. Kulkarni, J. and C.-Y.-D. Sim, "Wideband CPW-fed oval-shaped monopole antenna for Wi-Fi5 and Wi-Fi6 applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 107, 173-182, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERC20110903
12. Kulkarni, J., N. Kulkarni, and A. Desai, "Development of `H-Shaped' monopole antenna for IEEE 802.11a and HIPERLAN2 applications in the laptop computer," Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Eng., Vol. 30, No. 7, Jul. 2020.
13. Kulkarni, J. and C. Sim, "Multiband, miniaturized, maze shaped antenna with an air-gap for wireless applications," Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Eng., Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan. 2021.
15. Duroc, Y., A. Ghiotto, T. P. Vuong, and S. Tedjini, "UWB antennas: Systems with transfer function and impulse response," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 55, No. 5, 1449-1451, May 2007. doi:10.1109/TAP.2007.895636
16. Quintero, G., J.-F. Zurcher, and A. K. Skrivervik, "System fidelity factor: A new method for comparing UWB antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 59, No. 7, 2502-2512, Jul. 2011.
17. Oh, S.-S. and Y.-H. Lee, "An EIRP measurement method for base-station antennas using field strengths measured along a single straight line," Int. J. Antennas Propag., Vol. 2013, 1-3, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/742636
18. Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, 4th Ed., Wiley, 2011.
19. Mirshafiei, M., M. Abtahi, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, "Wideband antenna EIRP measurements for various UWB waveforms," 2008 IEEE International Conference on Ultra- Wideband, 125-128, 2008. doi:10.1109/ICUWB.2008.4653300
20. Tiwari, R. N., P. Singh, and B. K. Kanaujia, "Small-size Scarecrow-shaped CPW and microstrip-line-fed UWB antennas," J. Comput. Electron., Vol. 17, No. 3, 1047-1055, Sep. 2018. doi:10.1007/s10825-018-1182-0
21. Touhami, N. A., Y. Yahyaoui, A. Zakriti, K. Bargach, M. Boussouis, M. Lamsalli, and A. Tribak, "A compact CPW-fed planar pentagon antenna for UWB applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 46, 153-161, 2014. doi:10.2528/PIERC13121709
22. Chattoraj, N., "Design and development of a small compact ultra wideband antenna," IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., Vol. 44, 012003, Apr. 2013. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/44/1/012003
23. Jacob, S., V. A. Shameena, S. Mridula, C. K. Anandan, K. Vasudevan, and P. Mohanan, "Planar UWB antenna with modified slotted ground plane," Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Eng., Vol. 22, No. 5, 594-602, Sep. 2012. doi:10.1002/mmce.20616
24. Shameena, V. A., M. Manoj, M. Remsha, C. V. Vinisha, and P. Mohanan, "CPW fed ultra wideband strip antenna," 2019 URSI Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (AP-RASC), 1-4, 2019.