The article presents the design of an Ultra-Wideband (UWB) annular ring antenna which operates over 1.5 GHz to 12 GHz and covers most of the bands of mobile communication (GSM 1800, 1900 and 2100, UMTS, Bluetooth (2.4 GHz), WLAN 2.4/3.5/5 GHz and WiMAX 2.5/3.5/5.5 GHz). The antenna size is 40 x 36.67 x 1.6 mm3, and an FR-4 substrate of permittivity 4.3 with loss tangent of 0.025 is used for fabrication. Circular defect in ground plane of annular ring is used to achieve UWB characteristics. A wideband mushroom type Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) unit cell is designed which resonates at 2.3 GHz, and 8-unit cells are placed close to feeds of annular ring patch where current density is more for 2.4 GHz so as to reduce surface waves and ultimately to lower Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). SAR is evaluated with dual-feeds for single element and is lowered up to 83.64% for 1-gram of tissue mass.
Shankar B. Deosarkar,
"Performance Optimization of Dual-Feed UWB Annular Ring Antenna with Circular DGS and EBG for SAR Reduction," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,
Vol. 115, 51-64, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERC21042402
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