Nowadays, due to the ever-increasing number of electronic devices and communication systems that use high-frequency electromagnetic waves, a significant level of electromagnetic energy is available in the environment that is not entirely used. In this work, a complete electromagnetic harvesting system using a rectenna is proposed to collect this energy and feed a temperature measurement module. The rectenna is constituted by a combination of a microstrip antenna that captures the electromagnetic energy and a rectifier circuit that converts it into electric energy in direct current (DC) form to feed ultra-low-power loads. The proposed system uses a rectangular microstrip antenna, designed and optimized by using the Computer Simulation Technology (CST®) software to operate at 2.45 GHz. This designed antenna presents a measured reflection coefficient lower than -20 dB at the operating frequency with a maximum gain equal to 7.26 dB. In addition, a voltage doubler rectifier circuit is designed and optimized by using the Advanced Design System (ADS®) to match the impedance of the designed antenna to reduce the reflection losses between these two modules, achieving maximum measured efficiency of approximately 33%. Furthermore, a boost converter circuit is designed for the power management between collected and delivered powers to the sensor and to provide appropriate voltage levels to feed the temperature measurement module. This module consists of an ultra-low-power microcontroller and a temperature sensor that operates in the range of 1.8-3.6 V. The procedures for designing and testing each module of this system are detailed. Finally, a prototype is built and tested under different operating conditions to confirm its functionality and feasibility. These tests show that the proposed system can operate without batteries, only with the harvested electromagnetic energy dispersed in the environment, even from modulated and pulsating sources, as is the case of commercial routers.
Felipe De Oliveira Silva Zanon,
Ursula C. Resende,
Guilherme Lopes De Figueiredo Brandão,
Icaro Veloso Soares,
"Energy Harvesting System Using Rectenna Applied to Wireless Powered Remote Temperature Sensing," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,
Vol. 114, 203-216, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERC21060901
1. Shinohara, N., "Trends in wireless power transfer: WPT technology for energy harvesting, mllimeter-wave/THz rectennas, MIMO-WPT, and advances in near-field WPT applications," IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 22, No. 1, 46-59, 2021. doi:
2. Gonçalves, Y., U. Resende, and I. Soares, "Electromagnetic energy harvesting using a glass window," Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications, Vol. 19, No. 1, 50-59, 2020. doi:The server didn't respond in time.
3. Hamied, F. M. A., K. Mahmoud, M. Hussein, and S. S. A. Obayya, "Design and analysis of rectangular spiral nano-antenna for solar energy harvesting," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 111, 25-34, 2021. doi:
4. Wu, N., B. Bao, and Q. Wang, "Review on engineering structural designs for efficient piezoelectric energy harvesting to obtain high power output," Engineering Structures, Vol. 235, 112068, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2021.112068
5. Shakeel, M., K. Rehman, S. Ahmad, M. Amin, N. Iqbal, and A. Khan, "A low-cost printed organic thermoelectric generator for low-temperature energy harvesting," Renewable Energy, Vol. 167, 853-860, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2020.11.158
6. Brown, W. C., "The history of power transmission by radio waves," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 32, No. 9, 1230-1242, 1984. doi:10.1109/TMTT.1984.1132833
7. Divakaran, S., D. Krishna, Nasimuddin, and J. K. Antony, "Dual-band multi-port rectenna for RF energy harvesting," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 107, 17-31, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERC20100802
8. Pandey, R., A. K. Shankhwar, and A. Singh, "An improved conversion efficiency of 1.975 to 4.744 GHz rectenna for wireless sensor applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 109, 217-225, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERC20121102
9. Sanislav, T., G. D. Mois, S. Zeadally, and S. C. Folea, "Energy harvesting techniques for internet of things (IoT)," IEEE Access, Vol. 9, 39530-39549, 2021. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3064066
10. Okba, A., A. Takacs, and H. Aubert, "Compact flat dipole rectenna for IoT applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 87, 39-49, 2018. doi:10.2528/PIERC18071604
11. Dong, Y., P. Fan, and K. B. Letaief, "Energy harvesting powered sensing in IoT: Timeliness versus distortion," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol. 7, No. 11, 10897-10911, 2020. doi:10.1109/JIOT.2020.2990715
12. Xu, H., L. Tsang, J. Johnson, K. C. Jezek, J.-B. Yan, and P. Gogineni, "A combined active and passive method for the remote sensing of ice sheet temperature profiles," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 167, 111-126, 2020. doi:10.2528/PIER20030601
13. Williams, A., M. Torquato, I. Cameron, A. Fahmy, and J. Sienz, "Survey of energy harvesting technologies for wireless sensor networks," IEEE Access, Vol. 9, 77493-77510, 2021. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3083697
14. Brandão, G. L. F., Ú. C. Resende, F. S. Bicalho, G. A. T. Almeida, and M. M. Afonso, "Parallel association of rectennas for electromagnetic energy harvesting," Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Fields in Mechatronics, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 2017.
15. Pereira, P., R. C. M. Pimenta, R. Adriano, G. L. F. Brandão, and Ú. C. Resende, "Antenna impedance correction for low power energy harvesting devices," Proceedings of the SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference, 2017.
16. Corrêa, D. C., U. C. Resende, F. S. Bicalho, and Y. S. Gonçalves, "Design, optimization and experimental evaluation of a F-shaped multiband metamaterial antenna," J. Microwaves, Optoelectron. Electromagn. Appl., Vol. 17, No. 4, 590-603, 2018. doi:10.1590/2179-10742018v17i41541
17. Li, S., F. Cheng, C. Gu, S. Yu, and K. Huang, "Efficient dual-band rectier using stepped impedance stub matching network for wireless energy harvesting," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 31, No. 7, 921-924, 2021. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2021.3078546
18. Liu, L., Q.-Y. Xiang, D. Tian, and Q. Feng, "A novel antenna feeding network with separately resonant frequency and impedance matching tunable capability," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 81, 85-91, 2019. doi:10.2528/PIERL18120709
19. Wagih, M., N. Hillier, S. Yong, A. Weddell, and S. Beeby, "RF-powered wearable energy harvesting and storage module based on E-textile coplanar waveguide rectenna and supercapacitor," IEEE Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2, 302-314, 2021. doi:10.1109/OJAP.2021.3059501
20. Altíntaş, O., M. Aksoy, E. Ünal, M. Karaaslan, and C. Sabah, "Operating frequency reconguration study for a split ring resonator based micro uidic sensor," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 167, No. 14, 147512, 2020. doi:10.1149/1945-7111/abc656
21. Chakravartula, V., S. Rakshit, S. Dhanalakshmi, R. Kumar, and R. Narayanamoorthi, "Linear temperature distribution sensor using FBG in liquids --- Local heat transfer examination application," IEEE Sensors Journal, 2021.
22. Dalgaç, S., M. Furat, M. Karaaslan, O. Akgöl, F. Karadag, M. Zile, and M. Bakir, "Grease oil humidity sensor by using metamaterial," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 34, No. 18, 2488-2498, 2020. doi:10.1080/09205071.2020.1824690
23. Yu, H., C. Wang, F. Meng, J. Xiao, J. Liang, H. Kim, S. Bae, D. Zou, E. Kim, N. Kim, M. Zhao, and B. Li, "Microwave humidity sensor based on carbon dots-decorated MOF-derived porous Co3O4 for breath monitoring and finger moisture detection," Carbon, 2021.
24. Lin, L., W. Jiang, X. Xu, and P. Xu, "A critical review of the application of electromagnetic fields for scaling control in water systems: Mechanisms, characterization, and operation," NPJ Clean Water, Vol. 3, No. 1, 202.
25. Ma, K., Z. Li, P. Liu, J. Yang, Y. Geng, B. Yang, and X. Guan, "Reliability-constrained throughput optimization of industrial wireless sensor networks with energy harvesting relay," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 2021.
26. Lee, W., H. Park, S. Kim, S. Park, D. Kim, and H. Lee, "Wireless-powered VOCs sensor based on energy-harvesting metamaterial," Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2001240, 2021. doi:10.1002/aelm.202001240
27. Abdulkarim, Y., H. Awl, F. Alkurt, F. Muhammadsharif, S. Saeed, M. Karaaslan, M. Bakır, and H. Luo, "A thermally stable and polarization insensitive square-shaped water metamaterial with ultra-broadband absorption," Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Vol. 13, 1150-1158, 2020.
28. Cai, X., W. Geyi, and Y. Guo, "A compact rectenna with flat-top angular coverage for RF energy harvesting," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 20, No. 7, 1307-1311, 2021. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2021.3078548
29. Lu, P., C. Song, and K. Huang, "Ultra-wideband rectenna using complementary resonant structure for microwave power transmission and energy harvesting," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 69, No. 7, 3452-3462, 2021. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2021.3067902
30. Roy, S., R. Tiang, M. Roslee, M. Ahmed, and M. Mahmud, "Quad-band multiport rectenna for RF energy harvesting in ambient environment," IEEE Access, Vol. 9, 77464-77481, 2021. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3082914
31. Gu, X., L. Grauwin, D. Dousset, S. Hemour, and K. Wu, "Dynamic ambient RF energy density measurements of montreal for battery-free IoT sensor network planning," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3065683, 2021. doi:doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3065683
32. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory --- Analysis and Design, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 1997.
33. Morais, R., J. Mendes, R. Silva, N. Silva, J. Sousa, and E. Peres, "A versatile, low-power and low-cost IoT device for field data gathering in precision agriculture practices," Agriculture, Vol. 11, No. 7, 619, 2021. doi:10.3390/agriculture11070619
34. Sowmya, N., S. Rout, and R. Patjoshi, "Implementation of ultra-low-power electronics for biomedical applications," Electronic Devices, Circuits, and Systems for Biomedical Applications, 153-176, 2021. doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-85172-5.00004-6
35. Stolojescu-Crisan, C., C. Crisan, and B. Butunoi, "An IoT-based smart home automation system," Sensors, Vol. 21, No. 11, 3784, 2021. doi:10.3390/s21113784