Vol. 137
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIERC 144 [2024] PIERC 143 [2024] PIERC 142 [2024] PIERC 141 [2024] PIERC 140 [2024] PIERC 139 [2024] PIERC 138 [2023] PIERC 137 [2023] PIERC 136 [2023] PIERC 135 [2023] PIERC 134 [2023] PIERC 133 [2023] PIERC 132 [2023] PIERC 131 [2023] PIERC 130 [2023] PIERC 129 [2023] PIERC 128 [2023] PIERC 127 [2022] PIERC 126 [2022] PIERC 125 [2022] PIERC 124 [2022] PIERC 123 [2022] PIERC 122 [2022] PIERC 121 [2022] PIERC 120 [2022] PIERC 119 [2022] PIERC 118 [2022] PIERC 117 [2021] PIERC 116 [2021] PIERC 115 [2021] PIERC 114 [2021] PIERC 113 [2021] PIERC 112 [2021] PIERC 111 [2021] PIERC 110 [2021] PIERC 109 [2021] PIERC 108 [2021] PIERC 107 [2021] PIERC 106 [2020] PIERC 105 [2020] PIERC 104 [2020] PIERC 103 [2020] PIERC 102 [2020] PIERC 101 [2020] PIERC 100 [2020] PIERC 99 [2020] PIERC 98 [2020] PIERC 97 [2019] PIERC 96 [2019] PIERC 95 [2019] PIERC 94 [2019] PIERC 93 [2019] PIERC 92 [2019] PIERC 91 [2019] PIERC 90 [2019] PIERC 89 [2019] PIERC 88 [2018] PIERC 87 [2018] PIERC 86 [2018] PIERC 85 [2018] PIERC 84 [2018] PIERC 83 [2018] PIERC 82 [2018] PIERC 81 [2018] PIERC 80 [2018] PIERC 79 [2017] PIERC 78 [2017] PIERC 77 [2017] PIERC 76 [2017] PIERC 75 [2017] PIERC 74 [2017] PIERC 73 [2017] PIERC 72 [2017] PIERC 71 [2017] PIERC 70 [2016] PIERC 69 [2016] PIERC 68 [2016] PIERC 67 [2016] PIERC 66 [2016] PIERC 65 [2016] PIERC 64 [2016] PIERC 63 [2016] PIERC 62 [2016] PIERC 61 [2016] PIERC 60 [2015] PIERC 59 [2015] PIERC 58 [2015] PIERC 57 [2015] PIERC 56 [2015] PIERC 55 [2014] PIERC 54 [2014] PIERC 53 [2014] PIERC 52 [2014] PIERC 51 [2014] PIERC 50 [2014] PIERC 49 [2014] PIERC 48 [2014] PIERC 47 [2014] PIERC 46 [2014] PIERC 45 [2013] PIERC 44 [2013] PIERC 43 [2013] PIERC 42 [2013] PIERC 41 [2013] PIERC 40 [2013] PIERC 39 [2013] PIERC 38 [2013] PIERC 37 [2013] PIERC 36 [2013] PIERC 35 [2013] PIERC 34 [2013] PIERC 33 [2012] PIERC 32 [2012] PIERC 31 [2012] PIERC 30 [2012] PIERC 29 [2012] PIERC 28 [2012] PIERC 27 [2012] PIERC 26 [2012] PIERC 25 [2012] PIERC 24 [2011] PIERC 23 [2011] PIERC 22 [2011] PIERC 21 [2011] PIERC 20 [2011] PIERC 19 [2011] PIERC 18 [2011] PIERC 17 [2010] PIERC 16 [2010] PIERC 15 [2010] PIERC 14 [2010] PIERC 13 [2010] PIERC 12 [2010] PIERC 11 [2009] PIERC 10 [2009] PIERC 9 [2009] PIERC 8 [2009] PIERC 7 [2009] PIERC 6 [2009] PIERC 5 [2008] PIERC 4 [2008] PIERC 3 [2008] PIERC 2 [2008] PIERC 1 [2008]
2023-09-09
Compact Dual-Polarized Reconfigurable MIMO Antenna Based on a Varactor Diode for 5G Mobile Terminal Applications
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 137, 185-198, 2023
Abstract
With the rapid growth of wireless communication systems, there is a rising demand for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna systems capable of adapting to various frequency bands and operating conditions. This paper presents an integrated design for MIMO antennas based on a varactor diode as a promising component for achieving frequency agility in the proposed system. A dual-polarized system is achieved by employing a combination of two antennas. One antenna is situated on the exterior surface of the side-edge frame, while the other is positioned on the substrate surface. The spatial configuration enables the creation of orthogonal polarization orientations, specifically vertical and horizontal polarizations. In each element, varactor diodes are positioned to provide reactive loading. By incorporating varactor diodes with a variable bias voltage (0.5-10 V) into the antenna design, the resonant frequency can be dynamically adjusted, allowing the antenna to operate across a wide range of frequencies (4.3 to 6.5 GHz) with more than 18 dB of mutual coupling in the working band. The presented reconfigurable antennas are printed on compact dimensions of 15 x 25 x 0.8 mm3 using a Rogers RT5880 material with a relative dielectric constant 2.2. Because of its flexible frequency range, extensive tuning range, small size, and planar structure, it is well-suited for various current and future wireless communication applications, including cognitive radio, software-defined radio, and next-generation wireless networks.
Citation
Qasim Hadi Kareem Al-Gertany, Rana Ahmed Shihab, and Hussien Hadi Kareem, "Compact Dual-Polarized Reconfigurable MIMO Antenna Based on a Varactor Diode for 5G Mobile Terminal Applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 137, 185-198, 2023.
doi:10.2528/PIERC23072204
References

1. Kareem Al-Gertany, Q. H., M. J. Farhan, and A. K. Jassim, "Design and analysis a frequency reconfigurable octagonal ring-shaped quad-port dual-band antenna based on a varactor diode," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 116, 235-248, 2021.
doi:10.2528/PIERC21091705

2. Tawk, Y., M. Bkassiny, G. El-Howayek, S. K. Jayaweera, K. Avery, and C. G. Christodoulou, "Reconfigurable front-end antennas for cognitive radio applications," IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 5, No. 8, 985-992, 2011.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2010.0358

3. Valenta, V., R. Marsalek, G. Baudoin, M. Villegas, M. Suarez, and F. Robert, "Survey on spectrum utilization in Europe: Measurements, analyses and observations," 2010 Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, CROWNCom, 2010.

4. Liu, L., S. W. Cheung, and T. I. Yuk, "Compact MIMO antenna for portable devices in UWB applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 8, 4257-4264, 2013.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2013.2263277

5. Zhang, S. and G. F. Pedersen, "Mutual coupling reduction for UWB MIMO antennas with a wideband neutralization line," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 15, 166-169, 2016.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2015.2435992

6. Yang, H. H. and T. Q. S. Quek, Massive MIMO Meets Small Cell?: Backhaul and Cooperation, Springer Cham, 2017.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43715-6

7. Li, H., J. Liu, Z. Wang, and Y.-Z. Yin, "Compact 1 x 2 and 2 x 2 MIMO antennas with enhanced isolation for ultrawideband application," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 71, 41-49, 2017.
doi:10.2528/PIERC16120805

8. Biswas, A. K. and U. Chakraborty, "Compact wearable MIMO antenna with improved port isolation for ultra-wideband applications," IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 13, No. 4, 498-504, 2019.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2018.5599

9. Majid, H. A., M. K. A. Rahim, M. R. Hamid, N. A. Murad, and M. F. Ismail, "Frequency-reconfigurable microstrip patch-slot antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, 218-220, 2013.
doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2245293

10. Majid, H. A., M. K. Abd Rahim, M. R. Hamid, and M. F. Ismail, "Frequency reconfigurable microstrip patch-slot antenna with directional radiation pattern," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 144, 319-328, 2014.
doi:10.2528/PIER13102901

11. Yang, X., Y. Chen, L. Ye, M. Wang, M. Yu, and Q. H. Liu, "Frequency reconfigurable circular patch antenna using PIN diodes," 9th International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology, ICMMT 2016 --- Proceedings, Vol. 2, 606-608, 2016.
doi:10.1109/ICMMT.2016.7762382

12. Mahlaoui, Z., E. Antonino-Daviu, A. Latif, M. Ferrando-Bataller, and C. R. Penafiel-Ojeda, "Frequency reconfigurable patch antenna using pin diodes with directive and fixed radiation pattern," 2018 International Conference on Selected Topics in Mobile and Wireless Networking, MoWNeT, 2018.

13. Madhav, B. T. P., M. Monika, B. M. S. Kumar, and B. Prudhvinadh, "Dual band reconfigurable compact circular slot antenna for WiMAX and X-band applications," Radioelectronics and Communications Systems, Vol. 62, No. 9, 474-485, 2019.
doi:10.3103/S0735272719090048

14. Zhou, J., M. Yang, and J. Yu, "Pattern reconfigurable patch antenna with dual band characteristic for WLAN & 5G applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 98, 147-158, 2020.
doi:10.2528/PIERM20081303

15. Diallo, K., A. Diallo, I. Dioum, S. Ouya, and J. M. Ribero, "Design of a dual-band antenna system for lTE-M and LTE-MIMO by exploiting the characteristic mode theory," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 93, 11-21, 2020.
doi:10.2528/PIERM20030606

16. Sailaja, B. V. S. and K. K. Naik, "Design of elliptical-shaped reconfigurable patch antenna with shunt capacitive RF-MEMS switch for satellite applications," International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technology, Vol. 13, No. 9, 969-978, 2021.
doi:10.1017/S1759078720001634

17. Xu, Z. Q., Y. T. Sun, Q. Q. Zhou, Y. L. Ban, Y. X. Li, and S. S. Ang, "Reconfigurable MIMO antenna for integrated-metal-rimmed smartphone applications," IEEE Access, Vol. 5, 21223-21228, 2017.
doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2757949

18. Choi, J., W. Hwang, C. You, B. Jung, and W. Hong, "Four-element reconfigurable coupled loop MIMO antenna featuring LTE full-band operation for metallic-rimmed smartphone," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 67, No. 1, 99-107, 2019.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2018.2877299

19. Hassan, M. M., Z. Zahid, A. A. Khan, I. Rashid, A. Rauf, and F. A. Bhatti, "Two element MIMO antenna with frequency reconfigurable characteristics utilizing RF MEMS for 5G applications," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 34, No. 9, 1210-1224, 2020.
doi:10.1080/09205071.2020.1765883

20. Shruthi, G., C. Y. Kumar, and , "Dual-band frequency-reconfigurable MIMO PIFA for LTE applications in mobile hand-held devices," IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 14, No. 5, 419-427, 2020.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2019.0878

21. Sharma, K. and G. P. Pandey, "Two port compact MIMO antenna for ISM band applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 100, 173-185, 2020.
doi:10.2528/PIERC20011504

22. Dou, Y., Z. Chen, J. Bai, Q. Cai, and G. Liu, "Two-port CPW-fed dual-band MIMO antenna for IEEE 802.11 a/b/g applications," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2021, 2021.

23. Kareem, Q. H. and M. J. Farhan, "Compact dual-polarized eight-element antenna with high isolation for 5G mobile terminal applications," International Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems, Vol. 14, No. 6, 187-197, 2021.
doi:10.22266/ijies2021.1231.18

24. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2016.