A real time, low complexity algorithm is developed to steer a planar patch antenna array beam to the maximum received signal strength (RSS) direction for communication link enhancement. The beam steering towards the maximum incoming signal direction is based on an iterative technique utilizing a set of RSS measurements taken from specific locations in the search space, these locations collectively form an ellipse. The algorithm is denoted as ``elliptical peeking''. It was simulated for a flying unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as the vehicle tries to identify the maximum signal strength incoming direction of a stationary ground signal and it was tested on an embedded platform to validate its low demand for computational power. Such an algorithm is suitable for autonomous platforms due to its simplicity and low cost.
2. Munoz, D., F. Bouchereau, C. Vargas, and R. E. Caldera, Position Location Techniques and Applications, Elsevier Inc., United Stated of America, 2009.
3. Yu, K., I. Sharp, and Y. J. Guo, Ground Based Wireless Positioning, Wiley, United Kingdom, 2009.
4. Amundson, I., X. Koutsoukos, J. Sallai, and A. Ledeczi, "Mobile sensor navigation using rapid RF-based angle of arrival localization," 7th IEEE Real-time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), 316-325, 2011.
5. Izquierdo, F., M. Ciurana, F. Barcelo, J. Paradells, and E. Zola, "Performance evaluation of a TOA-based trilateration method to locate terminals in WLAN," 2006 1st International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing, 1-6, 2006.
6. Yoon, J., J.-W. Kim, W.-H. Lee, and D.-S. Eom, "A TDoA-based localization using precise time-synchronization," 2012 14th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 1266-1271, 2012.
7. Tarrio, P., A. M. Bernardos, and J. R. Casar, "An RSS localization method based on parametric channel models," International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, SensorComm 2007, 265-270, 2007.
8. Capkun, S., S. Ganeriwal, F. Anjum, and M. Srivastava, "Secure RSS-based localization in sensor networks,", ETH Department of Computer Science, Zurich, 2011.
9. Li, X., "RSS-based location estimation with unknown pathloss model," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 5, No. 12, 3626-3633, 2006.
10. Dil, B. J. and P. J. M. Havinga, "An the calibration and performance of RSS-based localization methods," Internet of Things (IOT), 1-8, 2010.
11. Pathirana, P. N., A. N. Bishop, and A. V. Savkin, "Localization of mobile transmitters by means of linear state estimation using RSS measurements," 10th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, ICARCV, 210-213, 2008.
12. Bianchi, G., N. B. Melazzi, and F. L. Piccolo, "Impact of chosen error criteria in RSS-based localization: Power vs distance vs relative distance error minimization," 12th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, ISCC, MW-9, 2007.
13. Paul, A. S. and E. A.Wan, "RSSI-based indoor localization and tracking using sigma-point Kalman smoothers," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Vol. 3, No. 5, 860-873, Oct. 2009.
14. Martin, R. K., A. S. King, R. W. Thomas, and J. Pennington, "Practical limits in RSS-based positioning," 2011 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2488-2491, 2011.
15. Tsuji, H., P. Cherntanomwong, and J.-I. Takada, "Experiential evaluation of outdoor radio source localization using spatial information of array," Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, APMC 2007, 1-4, 2007.
16. Wu, R.-H., Y.-H. Lee, H.-W. Tseng, Y.-G. Jan, and M.-H. Chuang, "Study of characteristics of RSSI signal," IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, ICIT 2008, 1-3, 2008.
17. XBeerZB ---Digi International, , Oct. 9, 2012, Available: http://www.digi.com/products/wireless-wired-embedded-solutions/zigbee-rf-modules/zigbee-mesh-module/xbee-zb-module#specs.
18. Ibrahim, M., S. Deif, and M. S. Sharawi, "A 14-element printed planar antenna array embedded within a UAV structure," Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 1-4, 2012.
19. Sharawi, M. S., M. Ibrahim, S. Deif, and D. N. Aloi, "A planar printed antenna array embedded in the wing structure of a UAV for communication link enhancement," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 138, 697-715, 2013.
20. Storn, R., "On the usage of differential evolution for function optimization," Fuzzy Information Processing Society, NAFIPS, Biennial Conference of the North American, 519-523, 1996.
21., "Introduction --- flightgear flight simulator,", Nov. 19, 2013, Available: http://www.flightgear.org/about/.
22. Kumar, V., H. Yong, D. Min, and E. Choi, "Auto landing control for small scale unmanned helicopter with °ight gear and HILS," 5th International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology (ICCIT), 676-681, 2010.
23., Mathworks Inc., "MATLAB,", Release 2012b. Massachusetts, USA.
24. Arduino --- ArduinoBoardDue, , Nov. 18, 2013, Available: http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardDue.