Radio-frequency electromagnetic waves can be harnessed to produce an alternative source of energy to replace batteries in many low-power device applications. An efficient radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting circuit was designed and constructed using a dynamic Pi-matching network in order to convert frequency-modulated electromagnetic waves in the range of 88-108 MHz to direct current through a 3-step process. The circuit consists of a 50 Ω copper plate dipole antenna, a Pi impedance matching network, and a five-stage voltage doubler circuit. These three modules are connected through SubMiniature version A (SMA) connectors for convenient assembly. The dynamic Pi matching technique for RF energy harvesting is theoretically explained and simulated in the Advance Design System software environment. The experimental values obtained in this proposed work are in good agreement with the simulations. The harvesting system is capable of producing up to 14.3 V direct current voltage across a 100 kΩ load in field tests carried out at a displacement of 760 m from a transmission tower. At 6.7 km from the tower, a DC value of 61.5 mV was still obtainable at the ground level. The direct-current power that was generated through the energy harvesting was applied for the demonstration of three tasks with satisfactory results: illuminating a light-emitting diode, energy storage in a Panasonic VL2020 rechargeable battery, and activation of a TMP20AIDCKT temperature sensor in an urban area which enabled low power device activation and energy storage.
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