Vol. 57

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Regional and Diurnal Variations of Rain Attenuation Obtained from Measurement of Raindrop Size Distribution Over Indonesia at Ku, Ka and W Bands

By Fadli Nauval, Marzuki, and Hiroyuki Hashiguchi
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 57, 25-34, 2017


The measured raindrop size distribution (DSD) and the ITU-R model have been used to elucidate the regional and diurnal variations of rain attenuation in Indonesia, for Ku-band (13.6 GHz), Ka-band (35.6 GHz), and W-band (96 GHz) frequencies. The DSDs were measured by the Parsivel disdrometer at Kototabang (KT; 100.32˚E, 0.20˚S), Padang (PD; 100:21˚E, 0:57˚S), Pontianak (PT; 109:37˚E, 0:00˚S), Manado (MN; 124:92˚E, 1:55˚N) and Biak (BK; 136:10˚E, 1:18˚S). In general, PD, KT and PT have lower rain attenuation than those at MN and BK, for the same rainfall rate, due to lower concentration of small-sized drops at these sites as reported by a previous study. Considerable differences between the attenuation obtained from the DSD and the ITU-R model are observed at all locations, in particular for very heavy rainfall (R > 50 mm/h). For R < 50 mm/h, the specific rain attenuation of measured DSD is in fairly good agreement with that obtained from the ITU-R model. The specific rain attenuation obtained from the DSD shows diurnal variation, in agreement with a previous study at KT. The diurnal variation of rain attenuation is dependent on the frequency and rainfall rate. At KT and PT, the lowest rain attenuation for Ku-band is observed during 06:00-12:00 LT, but during this period the largest attenuation is observed for Ka- and W-bands. These phenomena may be due to the increasing role of small and medium-sized drops by increasing frequency.


Fadli Nauval, Marzuki, and Hiroyuki Hashiguchi, "Regional and Diurnal Variations of Rain Attenuation Obtained from Measurement of Raindrop Size Distribution Over Indonesia at Ku, Ka and W Bands," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 57, 25-34, 2017.


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