In this work, two different high-frequency filters were produced, and each was manufactured in two different ways, one using conventional PCB technology and the other using hybrid 3D printing. The hybrid 3D printing technique combined the use of microdispensing of conductive inks and fused filament fabrication (FFF) of thermoplastic substrates. Measurements, properties, and comparisons between these filters are discussed. The goal of the research was to benchmark 3D printing of high-frequency filters to more confidently manufacture sophisticated devices and high-frequency systems by hybrid 3D printing.
2. Ketterl, T. P., et al., "A 2.45 GHz phased array antenna unit cell fabricated using 3-D multi-layer direct digital manufacturing," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 63, No. 12, 4382-4394, Dec. 2015, doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2015.2496180.
3. Leigh, S. J., R. J. Bradley, C. P. Purssell, D. R. Billson, and D. A. Hutchins, "A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors," PLoS ONE, Vol. 7, No. 11, e49365, 2012, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049365.
4. Espalin, D., D. W. Muse, E. MacDonald, and R. B. Wicker, "3D printing multifunctionality: Structures with electronics," The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 72, No. 5, 963-978, May 2014.
5. Li, B., P. A. Clarck, and K. H. Church, "Robust direct-write dispense tool and solutions for micro/meso-scale," Proceedings of the 2007 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, MSEC 2007, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, October 15-17, 2007.
6. Mohamed, O. A., S. H. Masood, and J. L. Bhowmik, "Optimization of fused deposition modeling process parameters: A review of current research and future prospects," Advances in Manufacturing, Vol. 3, No. 1, 42-53, March 2015.
7. Mason, W. P. and R. A. Sykes, "The use of coaxial and balanced transmission lines in filters and wide band transformers for high radio frequencies," Bell Syst. Tech. J., Vol. 16, 275-302, 1937.
8. Levy, R. and S. B. Cohn, "A history of microwave filter research design and development," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 32, No. 9, 1055-1067, 1984, ISSN 0018-9480.
9. Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
10. Aguilar, J. R., M. Beadle, P. T. Thompson, and M. W. Shelley, "The microwave and RF characteristics of FR4 substrates," IEE Colloquium on Low Cost Antenna Technology, (Ref. No. 1998/206), 2/1-2/6, London, 1998.
11. National Bureau of Standards, Circular of the Bureau of Standards: Vol. 31, Copper Wire Tables, No. 31, 71, MARCXML Washington Govt. Print, 1914.
12. Sarvar, F., N. J. Poole, and P. A. Witting, "PCB glass-fibre laminates: Thermal conductivity measurements and their effect on simulation," Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 19, No. 12, 1345-1350, December 1990, doi:10.1007/BF02662823.
13. Technical Data Sheet, "DuPont CB028 Silver Conductor,", Vol. 19, 1345, doi: 10.1007/BF02662823, [online] http://www.mcm.dupont.com.
14. nScrypt Specification Sheet, "SmartPumpTM 100 Specification Sheet,", nScrypt Inc. Orlando, FL, [Online] https://www.nscrypt.com [https://www.nscrypt.com/wpcontent/uploads/2018/11/nScrypt-SmartPump-Gen2-2018.pdf].
15. Vaezi, M., H. Seitz, and S. Yang, "A review on 3D micro-additive manufacturing technologies," Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol. 67, 1721-1754, Springer-Verlag, London, 2012, doi 10.1007/s00170-012-4605-2#.
16. nScrypt Specification Sheet, "nFDTM Specification Sheet,", nScrypt Inc. Orlando, FL, [online] http://www.nscrypt.com [http://webolistic.com/nscrypt-624/wpcontent/uploads/2018/08/nScrypt-SmartPump-Gen2-2018.pdf].
17. Luukkonen, O., S. I. Maslovski, and S. A. Tretyakov, "A stepwise Nicolson-Ross-Weir-based material parameter extraction method," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 1295-1298, 2011.
18. Church, K., E. MacDonald, P. Clark, R. Taylor, D. Paul, K. Stone, M. Wilhelm, F. Medina, J. Lyke, and R. Wicker, "Printed electronic processes for flexible hybrid circuits and antennas," Flexible Electronics & Displays Conference and Exhibition, 2009, 1-7, February 2-5, 2009.
19. Nam-Soo, K. and H. N. Kenneth, "Future direction of direct writing," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 108, 102801, [online], available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3510359, November 2010.
20. Carranza, G., U. Robles, C. L. Valle, J. J. Gutierrez, and R. C. Rumpf, "Design and hybrid additive manufacturing of 3D/volumetric electrical circuits," IEEE Trans. on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, 2019.