Terahertz spectroscopy brings precious complementary information in life science by probing directly low energy bindings inside matter. This property has been demonstrated on dehydrated substances, and interesting results are obtained on liquid solutions. The next step is the characterization of living cells. We have successfully integrated THz passive circuits inside Biological MicroElectroMechanical Systems (BioMEMS). They are based on metallic wires called Planar Goubau Line (PGL). We demonstrate that high THz measurement sensitivity can be reached with new design based on spirals. But we show that the principal interest of this design is its high spatial resolution below the wavelength size compatible with living cell investigation.
"Terahertz Spiral Planar Goubau Line Rejectors for Biological Characterization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M,
Vol. 14, 163-176, 2010. doi:10.2528/PIERM10072110
1. Facer, G. R., D. A. Notterman, and L. L. Sohn, "Dielectric spectroscopy for bioanalysis: From 40 Hz to 26.5 GHz in microfabricated wave guide," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 78, No. 7, 996-998, 2001. doi:10.1063/1.1347020
2. Treizebre, A., T. Akalin, and B. Bocquet, "Planar excitation of Goubau Line for THz BioMEMS," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 15, No. 12, 886-888, 2005. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2005.859976
3. Li, L. J., "Simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic substances in a mixed aqueous solution using a microwave dielectric sensor," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 14, 163-171, 2010. doi:10.2528/PIERC10051308
4. Dalmay, C., M. Cheray, A. Pothier, F. Lallou, M. O. Jauberteau, and P. Blondy, "Ultra sensitive biosensor based on impedance spectroscopy at microwave frequencies for cell scale analysis," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 162, No. 2, 189-197, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2010.04.023
5. Born, B. and M. Havenith, "Terahertz dance of proteins and sugar with water," International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 13, 1245-1254, 2009.
6. Laurette, S., A. Treizebre, F. Affouard, and B. Bocquet, "Subterahertz characterization of ethanol hydration layers by microfluidic system," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, No. 11, 111904-1-111904-3, 2010. doi:10.1063/1.3488832
7. George, P. A., W. Hui, F. Rana, B. G. Hawkins, A. E. Smith, and B. J. Kirby, "Microfluidic devices for terahertz spectroscopy of biomolecules," Optics Express, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1577-1582, 2008. doi:10.1364/OE.16.001577
8. Abbas, A., A. Treizebre, P. Supiot, N. E. Bourzgui, D. Guillochon, D. Vercaigne-Marko, and B. Bocquet, "Cold plasma functionalized TeraHertz BioMEMS for enzyme reaction analysis," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 25, No. 1, 154-160, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2009.06.029
9. Gupta, K. C., Microstrip Lines and Slotlines, 2nd Ed., Artech House, Boston, 1996.
10. Treizebre, A. and B. Bocquet, "Nanometric metal wire as a guide for THz investigation of living cells," International Journal of Nanotechnology, Vol. 5, No. 6--8, 784-795, 2008. doi:10.1504/IJNT.2008.018697
11. Nagel, M., P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, "Integrated planar terahertz resonators for femtomolar sensitivity label-free detection of DNA hybridization," Applied Optics, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2074-2078, 2002. doi:10.1364/AO.41.002074
12. Treizebre, A., B. Bocquet, D. Legrand, and J. Mazurier, "THz microscopic investigation on living cells," Proceeding International Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology, Canada, April 1--3, 2009.
14. Xu, Y. and R. G. Bosisio, "A comprehensive study on the planar type of Goubau line for millimetre and submillimetre wave integrated circuits," IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 1, No. 3, 681-687, 2007.
15. Treizebre, A., B. Bocquet, Y. Xu, and R. G. Bosisio, "New THz excitation of planar goubau line," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 50, No. 11, 2988-3001, 2008. doi:10.1002/mop.23850
16. Treizebre, A., B. Bocquet, D. Legrand, and J. Mazurier, "Studies of cellular informative transfer by THz BioMEMS," Proceedings of International Conferences on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Wave (IRMMW-THz 2008), California, September 15--19, 2008.
17. Wang, B. and G. P. Wang, "Plasmonic waveguide ring resonator at terahertz frequencies," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, No. 13, 1331006-1-1331006-3, 2006.