Vol. 50
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIERM 115 [2023] PIERM 114 [2022] PIERM 113 [2022] PIERM 112 [2022] PIERM 111 [2022] PIERM 110 [2022] PIERM 109 [2022] PIERM 108 [2022] PIERM 107 [2022] PIERM 106 [2021] PIERM 105 [2021] PIERM 104 [2021] PIERM 103 [2021] PIERM 102 [2021] PIERM 101 [2021] PIERM 100 [2021] PIERM 99 [2021] PIERM 98 [2020] PIERM 97 [2020] PIERM 96 [2020] PIERM 95 [2020] PIERM 94 [2020] PIERM 93 [2020] PIERM 92 [2020] PIERM 91 [2020] PIERM 90 [2020] PIERM 89 [2020] PIERM 88 [2020] PIERM 87 [2019] PIERM 86 [2019] PIERM 85 [2019] PIERM 84 [2019] PIERM 83 [2019] PIERM 82 [2019] PIERM 81 [2019] PIERM 80 [2019] PIERM 79 [2019] PIERM 78 [2019] PIERM 77 [2019] PIERM 76 [2018] PIERM 75 [2018] PIERM 74 [2018] PIERM 73 [2018] PIERM 72 [2018] PIERM 71 [2018] PIERM 70 [2018] PIERM 69 [2018] PIERM 68 [2018] PIERM 67 [2018] PIERM 66 [2018] PIERM 65 [2018] PIERM 64 [2018] PIERM 63 [2018] PIERM 62 [2017] PIERM 61 [2017] PIERM 60 [2017] PIERM 59 [2017] PIERM 58 [2017] PIERM 57 [2017] PIERM 56 [2017] PIERM 55 [2017] PIERM 54 [2017] PIERM 53 [2017] PIERM 52 [2016] PIERM 51 [2016] PIERM 50 [2016] PIERM 49 [2016] PIERM 48 [2016] PIERM 47 [2016] PIERM 46 [2016] PIERM 45 [2016] PIERM 44 [2015] PIERM 43 [2015] PIERM 42 [2015] PIERM 41 [2015] PIERM 40 [2014] PIERM 39 [2014] PIERM 38 [2014] PIERM 37 [2014] PIERM 36 [2014] PIERM 35 [2014] PIERM 34 [2014] PIERM 33 [2013] PIERM 32 [2013] PIERM 31 [2013] PIERM 30 [2013] PIERM 29 [2013] PIERM 28 [2013] PIERM 27 [2012] PIERM 26 [2012] PIERM 25 [2012] PIERM 24 [2012] PIERM 23 [2012] PIERM 22 [2012] PIERM 21 [2011] PIERM 20 [2011] PIERM 19 [2011] PIERM 18 [2011] PIERM 17 [2011] PIERM 16 [2011] PIERM 14 [2010] PIERM 13 [2010] PIERM 12 [2010] PIERM 11 [2010] PIERM 10 [2009] PIERM 9 [2009] PIERM 8 [2009] PIERM 7 [2009] PIERM 6 [2009] PIERM 5 [2008] PIERM 4 [2008] PIERM 3 [2008] PIERM 2 [2008] PIERM 1 [2008]
2016-09-16
Numerical Simulations of ELF/VLF Wave Generated by Modulated Beat-Wave Ionospheric Heating in High Latitude Regions
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 50, 55-63, 2016
Abstract
Based on the theory of ionospheric heating, with the self-consistent model in the low ionosphere, the Extremely-Low-Frequency (ELF) and Very-Low-Frequency (VLF) waves generated by modulated beat-wave ionospheric heating are analyzed theoretically. In the consideration of the stratified ionosphere, the magnetic fields generated by the equivalent ELF/VLF dipole source above thesea surfaceare studied by using the quasi-longitudinal approximation method.Taking the high latitude regions as an example, the variations of the electron temperature, the increments of Pedersen and Hall conductivities and the changing of the oscillating current densitywith the modulation frequency in beat-wave heating are numerically discussed. The distribution of the magnetic fields ispresented. It turns out that in high latitude regions, the efficiency of rectangular wave modulated heating ingenerating ELF/VLF wave is higher than that of modulated beat-wave heating, and the order of magnitude of the magnetic fields received above the sea surface is 10-7 in beat-wave modulation.
Citation
Hai-Ying Li Jie Zhan Zhen-Sen Wu Pengfei Kong , "Numerical Simulations of ELF/VLF Wave Generated by Modulated Beat-Wave Ionospheric Heating in High Latitude Regions," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 50, 55-63, 2016.
doi:10.2528/PIERM16062604
http://www.jpier.org/PIERM/pier.php?paper=16062604
References

1. Stolarczyk, L. G., "Detection and imaging of underground structures by exploiting ELF/VLF radiowaves,", AFRL-VS-TR-2000-1583, 2000.
doi:10.1109/JOE.2013.2278932

2. Doniec, M., M. Angermann, and D. Rus, "An end-to-end signal strength model for underwater optical communications," IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 38, 743-757, 2013.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2207682

3. Wang, Y.-X., R.-H. Jin, X.-L. Liang, and J.-P. Geng, "Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves excited by an underground HED in the lower ionosphere," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 11, 5412-5418, 2012.
doi:10.1002/2015RS005683

4. Maxworth, A. S., et al., "Multistation observations of the azimuth, polarization, and frequency dependence of ELF/VLF waves generated by electrojet modulation," Radio Science, Vol. 50, 1008-1026, 2015.
doi:10.1007/s11141-015-9590-5

5. Titova, E. E., et al., "ELF/VLF perturbations above the HAARP transmitter recorded by the Demeter satellite in the upper ionosphere," Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 58, 155-172, 2015.
doi:10.1029/RS025i006p01311

6. Papadopoulos, K., et al., "On the efficiency of ionospheric ELF generation," Radio Science, Vol. 25, 1311-1320, 1990.

7. Kuo, S., et al., "Beating HF waves to generate VLF waves in the ionosphere," Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics, Vol. 117, 1-83, 2012.

8. Moore, R. C., et al., "On the altitude of the ELF/VLF source region generated during ``beat-wave'' HF heating experiments," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, No. 18, L18101, 2012.
doi:10.1029/91GL02544

9. Barr, R. and P. Stubbe, "On the ELF generation efficiency of the Tromsø Heater Facility," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 18, 1971-1974, 1991.
doi:10.1002/2013RS005336

10. Fedorenko, Yu, et al., "Polarization of ELF waves generated during ``beat-wave'' heating experiment near cutoff frequency of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide," Radio Science, Vol. 49, 1254-1264, 2014.
doi:10.1002/2014GL060376

11. Tereshchenko, E. O., et al., "Features of amplitude and Doppler frequency variation of ELF/VLF waves generated by ``beat-wave'' HF heating at high latitudes," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, 4442-4448, 2014.
doi:10.1134/S0016793215040040

12. Gavrilov, B. G., et al., "Remote sensing of ELF/VLF radiation induced in experiments on artificial modification of the ionosphere," Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, Vol. 55, 450-456, 2015.
doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1957.278469

13. Wait, J. R., "The mode theory of VLF ionospheric propagation for finite ground conductivity," Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 45, 760-767, 1957.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1968.1139277

14. Galejs, J., "ELF and VLF fields of a horizontal electric dipole," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 16, 689-700, 1968.

15. Pan, W., Propagation of Long Wave Very Long Wave and Extremely Long Wave, University of Electronic Science and Technology Press, Chengdu, 2004.

16. Chang, S., Z. Zhao, and F. Wang, "The downward ELF/VLF waves radiation excited by ionospheric artificial modulation," Chinese Journal of Geophysics, Vol. 10, 2458-2467, 2011.

17. Wang, F., "Ray tracing of extremely low frequency waves radiated from ionospheric artificial modulation at low latitude," Acta Phys Sin, Vol. 19, 199401-199401, 2012.

18. Huang, W. and S. Gu, "Interaction between the powerful high-frequency radio wave and the lower terrestrial ionosphere," Chinese Journal of Space Science, Vol. 3, 181-188, 2003.

19. Li, K. and Y. Miao, "The VLF field of the sea surface generated by the transmitter antenna in the inhomogeneous ionosphere," Chinese Journal of Radio Science, Vol. 13, 265-269, 1998.
doi:10.1029/RS019i004p01111

20. Barr, R. and P. Stubbe, "ELF and VLF radiation from the ``polar electrojet antenna''," Radio Science, Vol. 19, 1111-1122, 1984.
doi:10.1016/S1364-6826(96)00121-6

21. Barr, R. and P. Stubbe, "ELF and VLF wave generation by HF heating: A comparison of AM and CW techniques," Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 59, 2265-2279, 1997.

22. Kou, S. P., et al., "Stimulated thermal instability for ELF and VLF wave generation in the polar electrojet," Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, 85-88, 2000.

23. Cohen, M. B., et al., "ELF/VLF wave generation from the beating of two HF ionospheric heating sources," Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics, Vol. 117, 1702-1711, 2012.

24. Chang, S. S., Z. Y. Zhao, and F. Wang, "The downward ELF/VLF waves radiation excited by ionospheric artificial modulation," Chinese Journal of Geophysics, Vol. 10, 2458-2467, 2011.