Eddy current (EC) inspection is used extensively in non-destructive testing (NDT) to detect surface-breaking defects of engineering components. However, the sensitivity of conventional eddy current inspection has plateaued in recent years. The ability to detect submillimetre defects before it becomes critical would allow engineering components to remain in-service safely for longer. Typically, it is required that higher frequency EC is employed to achieve a suitable sensitivity for detection of such submillimetre defects. However, that would lead to significant electromagnetic noise affecting the sensitivity of the inspection. To overcome this issue, the electrical-resonance based eddy current method has been proposed, where the electrical enhanced resonance signal increases the contrast between signal and noise, thus improving the sensitivity of the defect detection. This work aims to investigate the electrical-resonance system via simulation technology using combination of fast numerical-based simulation and circuit approach. Leveraging on this model, the detection system can be optimized by performing parameters tuning. Investigation of both experiment and simulation develops a precise calibration model for submillimeter defects detection.
Yew Li Hor,
Vinod Kumar Sivaraja,
Viet Phuong Bui,
"Modelling and Evaluation of Electrical Resonance Eddy Current for Submillimeter Defect Detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,
Vol. 89, 101-110, 2019. doi:10.2528/PIERC18102902
1. Blitz, J., Electrical and Magnetic Methods of Non-destructive Testing, 2nd Ed., Springer-Science+Business Media Dordrecht, 1997. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-5818-3
2. Bowler, J. R., S. J. Norton, and D. J. Harrison, "Eddy-current interaction with an ideal crack I. The forward problem," J. of Appl. Phys., Vol. 75, 8138-8144, 1994. doi:10.1063/1.356512
3. Sophian, A., G. Y. Tian, D. Taylor, and J. Rudlin, "Design of a pulsed eddy current sensor for detection of defects in aircraft lap-joints," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 101, No. 1-2, 92-98, 2002. doi:10.1016/S0924-4247(02)00195-4
4. Ball, D. L., "The role of nondestructive testing in aircraft damage tolerance," Materials Evaluation, Vol. 61, No. 7, 814-818, 2003.
5. Hashizume, H., Y. Yamada, K. Miya, S. Toda, K. Morimoto, Y. Araki, K. Satake, and N. Shimizu, "Numerical and experimental analysis of eddy current testing for a tube with cracks," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 28, 1469-1472, 1992. doi:10.1109/20.123973
6. Thollon, F., B. Lebrun, N. Burais, and Y. Jayet, "Numerical and experimental study of eddy current probes in NDT of structures with deep flaws," NDT & E Int., Vol. 28, 97-102, 1995. doi:10.1016/0963-8695(94)00010-H
7. Perrusson, G., P. Vafeas, and D. Lesselier, "Low–frequency dipolar excitation of a perfect ellipsoidal conductor," Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, Vol. 68, 513-536, 2010. doi:10.1090/S0033-569X-2010-01171-5
8. Vafeas, P., P. K. Papadopoulos, and D. Lesselier, "Electromagnetic low–frequency dipolar excitation of two metal spheres in a conductive medium," Journal of Applied Mathematics, Vol. 2012, 1-37, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/628261
9. Bernieri, A., G. Betta, L. Ferrigno, and M. Laracca, "Crack depth estimation by using a multi-frequency ECT method," IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 62, 3, 2013. doi:10.1109/TIM.2013.2266034
10. Chady, T. and R. Sikora, "Optimization of eddy-current sensor for multifrequency systems," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 39, 1313-1316, 2003. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2003.810412
11. Yin, W., P. J. Withers, U. Sharma, and A. J. Peyton, "Non-contact characterisation of carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic using multi-frequency eddy-current sensors," IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 62, No. 3, 2007.
12. Hughes, R. and S. Dixon, "Developments in near electrical resonance signal enhancement (NERSE) eddy-current methods," Progress in Quantitative NDE, Vol. 1650, 345-352l, 2015.
13. Hughes, R., Y. Fan, and S. Dixon, "Near electrical resonance signal enhancement (NERSE) in eddy-current crack detection," NDT & E International, Vol. 66, 82-89, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.ndteint.2014.04.009
14. Kincaid, T. G. and M. V. K. Chari, "The application of finite element method analysis to eddy current NDE," Proceedings of the ARPA/AFML Review of Progress in Quantitative NDE, July 1977–June 1978.
15. Miorelli, R., C. Reboud, D. Lesselier, and T. Theodoulidis, "Eddy current modeling of narrow cracks in planar-layered metal structures," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 48, No. 10, 2551-2559, 2012. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2012.2197403
16. Bui, V. P., C. Lane, Y. L. Hor, Z. Yu, and C. E. Png, "Model-assisted NDT for sub-mm surface-breaking crack detection in alloys," 2017 XXXIInd URSI GASS, 1-4, 2017.
17. Burke, S. K., "Eddy-current inversion in the thin-skin limit: Determination of depth and opening for a long crack," J. of Appl. Phys., Vol. 75, 3072-3080, 1994. doi:10.1063/1.358454
18. Aldrin, J. C., et al. "Model-based inverse methods for sizing cracks of varying shape and location in bolt-hole eddy current (BHEC) inspections," AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1706, 090020, 2016. doi:10.1063/1.4940557
19. Vafeas, P., A. Skarlatos, T. Theodoulidis, and D. Lesselier, "Semi-analytical method for the identification of inclusions by air-cored coil interaction in ferro-magnetic media," Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences, Vol. 41, 6422-6442, 2018. doi:10.1002/mma.5168
20. Chew, W. C., "Waves and fields in inhomogeneous media," IEEE Press Series in Electromagnetic Waves, IEEE Press, 1995.
21. Cheney, W. and D. Kincaid, Numerical Mathematics and Computing, 4th Ed., 138-141, Brooks/Cole, 1999.
22. Hor, Y. L., Y. Zhong, V. P. Bui, and C. E. Png, "Electrical resonance eddy current sensor for submillimeter defect detection," Proc. SPIE, Nondestructive Characterization and Monitoring of Advanced Materials, Aerospace, and Civil Infrastructure, 2017.
23. Miorelli, R., C. Reboud, T. Theodoulidis, N. Poulakis, and D. Lesselier, "Efficient modeling of ECT signal for realistic crack in layered half space," IEEE Trans. Magn., Vol. 49, No. 6, 2886-2892, 2013. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2012.2236102