A dual-band wearable antenna operating at 2.45 GHz and 5.80 GHz with compact Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) plane is proposed in this paper. The design is based on a U-shaped printed monopole antenna operating in the Industrial, Science, Medical (ISM) bands, and it is integrated with a square looped AMC plane which can reduce the overall size of the antenna system and realize miniaturization. The U-shaped monopole antenna is miniaturized by folding its arms, and its resonant frequency can be tuned easily by adjusting the length of two branches. The AMC unit, which is composed of concentric square double rings, realizes dual-band resonance. Meanwhile, a crossed patch is loaded into the inner ring to increase the electromagnetic coupling and reduce the resonance frequency of the two rings, thus miniaturizing the AMC unit. Therefore, the total size of the AMC plane which contains 3×3 elements is only 59.1 mm × 59.1 mm. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is examined by loading a three-layer human body tissue under the AMC antenna, and the simulation results show that SAR value is only 0.018 W/kg, which is far below the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer (IEEE) standard. Finally, a prototype of the proposed antenna was fabricated and tested, and the experimental results agree well with the simulation responses.
"A Dual-Band, Miniaturized, AMC-Based Wearable Antenna for Health Monitoring Applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,
Vol. 112, 165-177, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERC21032202
1. Salonen, P. and J. Rantanen, "A dual-band and wide-band antenna on flexible substrate for smart clothing," 27th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON'01, 125-130, 2001. doi:10.1109/IECON.2001.976466
2. Gao, G., C. Yang, B. Hu, R. Zhang, and S. Wang, "A wide-bandwidth wearable all-textile PIFA with dual resonance modes for 5 GHz WLAN applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 67, No. 6, 4206-4211, Mar. 2019. doi:10.1109/TAP.2019.2905976
3. Wang, F., T. Arslan, and , "A wearable ultra-wideband monopole antenna with flexible artificial magnetic conductor," Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference, LAPC, 1-5, 2016.
4. Atanasov, N. T., G. L. Atanasova, A. K. Stefanov, and I. I. Nedialkov, "A wearable, low-profile, fractal monopole antenna integrated with a reflector for enhancing antenna performance and SAR reduction," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on Advanced Materials and Processes for RF and THz Applications, IMWS-AMP, 67-69, 2019. doi:10.1109/IMWS-AMP.2019.8880142
5. Asif, S. M., A. Iftikhar, B. D. Braaten, D. L. Ewert, and K. Maile, "A wide-band tissue numerical model for deeply implantable antennas for RF-powered leadless pacemakers," IEEE Access, Vol. 7, 31031-31042, 2019. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2902981
6. Amini, A., H. Oraizi, and M. A. Chaychizadeh, "Miniaturized UWB log-periodic square fractal antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 14, 1322-1325, Mar. 2015. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2015.2411712
7. Deng, D., L. Wang, Z. Luo, B. Yan, L. Feng, and H. Zheng, "Design of miniaturized WLAN notched ultra-wideband microstrip antenna," International Symposium on Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory, ISAPE, 291-294, 2016.
8. Hong, T., S. Gong, Y. Liu, W. Jiang, and J. Du, "Miniaturized circularly polarized microstrip antenna by spirally slotted," IEEE 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Antennas and Propagation, APCAP, 585-586, 2015.
9. Hamouda, Z., J. Wojkiewicz, A. A. Pud, L. Kone, S. Bergheul, and T. Lasri, "Magnetodielectric nanocomposite polymer-based dual-band flexible antenna for wearable applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 66, No. 7, 3271-3277, Jul. 2018. doi:10.1109/TAP.2018.2826573
10. Li, X., Y. C. Jiao, and Z. Li, "Wideband low-profile CPW-fed slot-loop antenna using an artificial magnetic conductor," Electronics Letters, Vol. 54, No. 11, 673-674, May 2018. doi:10.1049/el.2018.0456
11. Mersani, A., L. Osman, and J. M. Ribero, "Performance of dual-band AMC antenna for wireless local area network applications," IET Microwaves Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 12, No. 6, 872-878, May 2018. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2017.0476
12. Lin, M., Y. Huang, and C. G. Hsu, "Design a dual-band high-impedance surface structure for electromagnetic protection in WLAN applications," International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 525-528, 2014.
13. Wang, M. J., Z. Yang, J. F. Wu, et al. "Investigation of SAR reduction using flexible antenna with metamaterial structure in wireless body area network," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 66, No. 6, Jun. 2018.
14. Ahmad, A., F. Faisal, S. Khan, S. Ullah, and U. Ali, "Performance analysis of a wearable and dual band planar antenna using a mushroom-like electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) ground plane," International Conference on Open Source Systems & Technologies, ICOSST, 24-29, 2015.
15. Jiang, Z. H., D. E. Brocker, P. E. Sieber, and D. H. Werner, "A compact, low-profile metasurface-enabled antenna for wearable medical body-area network devices," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 62, No. 8, Aug. 2014. doi:10.1109/TAP.2014.2327650
16. Ashyap, A. Y. I., Z. Z. Abidin, S. H. Dahlan, et al. "Compact and low-profile textile EBG-based antenna for wearable medical applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 2550-2553, Jul. 2017.
17. Yading, L., K. Esselle, A. Weily, and Y. Ge, "A dual-band planar compact artificial magnetic conductor," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 451-454, 2005. doi:10.1109/APS.2005.1552848
18. Velan, S., E. F. Sundarsingh, A. K. Sarma, et al. "Dual-band EBG integrated monopole antenna deploying fractal geometry for wearable applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 14, 249-252, Sep. 2015. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2014.2360710
19. Zhu, S. and R. Langley, "Dual-band wearable textile antenna on an EBG substrate," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 57, No. 4, Apr. 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2014527
20. Kim, S., Y. Ren, H. Lee, A. Rida, S. Nikolaou, and M. M. Tentzeris, "Monopole antenna with inkjet-printed EBG array on paper substrate for wearable applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 11, 663-666, Jun. 2012. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2012.2203291
21. Yan, S., P. J. Soh, and G. A. E. Vandenbosch, "Low-profile dual-band textile antenna with artificial magnetic conductor plane," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 62, No. 12, Dec. 2014. doi:10.1109/TAP.2014.2359194
22. Abdu, A., H. X. Zheng, J. H. Adamu, and M. J. Wang, "CPW-fed flexible monopole antenna with H and two concentric C slots on textile substrate, backed by EBG for WBAN," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 7, Sep. 2018. doi:10.1002/mmce.21505