Concentric ring antenna arrays with the ability to produce dual pattern have many applications in communications and radar engineering. In this paper, we represent a new method for design of an optimized reconfigurable concentric ring array with dual pattern of desired specifications. Here, our goal is to find a suitable common element excitation amplitude distribution and two different element excitation phase distributions for two desired radiation patterns. For this purpose, we have proposed a novel objective function which is completely different from the traditional objective functions usually used in antenna design problems. For the optimization procedure, we have developed a modified Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm, denoted as DE_rBM_2SX, which employs new kinds of crossover and mutation operators to overcome some drawbacks of the classical DE on single-objective fitness landscapes. We consider three types of dual pattern - pencil beam+pencil beam, pencil beam+flat-top beam, flat-top beam+flat-top beam. The simulation results obtained by applying our proposed method clearly indicate that our method is very convenient to obtain radiation patterns of desired specifications. We compare results of the modified DE algorithm with those of another state-of-the-art improved variant of DE, called JADE and a state-of-the-art variant of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm called Comprehensive Learning Particle Swarm Optimizer (CLPSO). Such comparisons reflect that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than JADE or CLPSO in finding optimum configuration of the dual pattern concentric ring array antenna. nullS
2. Durr, M., A. Trastoy, and F. Ares, "Multiple-pattern linear antenna arrays with single prefixed amplitude distributions: Modified Woodward-Lawson synthesis," Electronics Letters, Vol. 36, No. 16, 1345-1346, Aug. 2000.
3. Bucci, O. M., G. Mazzarella, and G. Panariello, "Reconfigurable arrays by phase only control," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 39, No. 7, 919-925, Jul. 1991.
4. Vaitheeswaran, S. M., "Dual beam synthesis using element position perturbations and the G3-GA algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 87, 43-61, 2008.
5. Kumar, B. P. and G. R. Brenner, "Design of unequally spaced arrays for improved performance," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 47, No. 32, 511-523, Mar. 1999.
6. Haupt, R. L., "Optimized element spacing for low side lobe concentric ring arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 1, 266-268, Jan. 2008.
7. Chakrabarty, A., B. N. Das, and G. S. Sanyal, "Beam shaping using nonlinear phase distribution in a uniformly spaced array," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propag., Vol. 30, 1031-1034, 1982.
8. Trastoy, A. and F. Ares, "Phase-only control of antenna sum patterns," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 30, 47-57, 2001.
9. Storn, R. and K. Price, "Differential evolution - A simple and effcient heuristic for global optimization over continuous spaces," Journal of Global Optimization, Vol. 11, No. 4, 341-359, 1997.
10. Zhang, J. and A. C. Sanderson, "JADE: Adaptive differential evolution with optional external archive," IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., Vol. 13, No. 5, 945-958, Oct. 2009.
11. Liang, J. J., A. K. Qin, P. N. Suganthan, and S. Baskar, "Comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer for global optimization of multimodal functions," IEEE Trans. on Evol. Compt., Vol. 10, 281-295, 2006.
12. Mahanti, G. K., A. Chakrabarty, and S. Das, "Phase-only and amplitude-phase synthesis of dual-pattern linear antenna arrays using floating-point genetic algorithms," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 68, 247-259, 2007.
13. Haupt, L. R., "Phase-only adaptive nulling with a genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 45, No. 6, 1009-1015, 1997.
14. Ares, F., J. A. Rodriguez, E. Villanueva, and S. R. Rengarajan, "Genetic algorithms in the design and optimization of antenna array patterns," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 47, 506-510, 1999.
15. Boeringer, D. W. and D. H.Werner, "Particle swarm optimization versus genetic algorithms for phased array synthesis," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 52, 771-779, 2004.
16. Grimaccia, F., M. Mussetta, and R. E. Zich, "Genetical swarm optimization: Self-adaptive hybrid evolutionary algorithm for electromagnetics," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 55, 781-785, 2007.
17. Guney, K. and M. Onay, "Amplitude-only pattern nulling of linear antenna arrays with the use of bees algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 70, 21-36, 2007.
18. Xu, Z., H. Li, and Q. Z. Liu, "Pattern synthesis of conformal antenna array by the hybrid genetic algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 79, 75-90, 2008.
19. Khodier, M. M. and C. G. Christodoulou, "Linear array geometry synthesis with minimum sidelobe level and null control using particle swarm optimization," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 53, 2674-2679, 2005.
20. Jin, N. and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Advances in particle swarm optimization for antenna designs: Real-number, binary, singleobjective and multiobjective implementations," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 55, 556-567, 2007.
21. Kurup, D. G., M. Himdi, and A. Rydberg, "Synthesis of uniform amplitude unequally spaced antenna arrays using the differential evolution algorithm," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 51, 2210-2217, 2003.
22. Ho, S. L., et al., "A particle swarm optimization method with enhanced global search ability for design optimizations of electromagnetic devices," IEEE Trans. Magnetics., Vol. 42, 1107-1110, 2006.
23. Das, S. and P. N. Suganthan, "Differential evolution - A survey of the state-of-the-art," IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 15, No. 1, 4-31, 2011.
24. Lampinen, J. and I. Zelinka, "On stagnation of the differential evolution algorithm," Proc. of MENDEL 2000, 6th International Mendel Conference on Soft Computing, P. O·smera (ed.), 76-83, Brno, Czech Republic, Jun. 7-9, 2000.
25. Stearns, C. and A. Stewart, "An investigation of concentric ring antennas with low sidelobes," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 13, No. 6, 856-863, Nov. 1965.
26. Goto, N. and D. K. Cheng, "On the synthesis of concentric-ring arrays," IEEE Proc., Vol. 58, No. 5, 839-840, May 1970.
27. Biller, L. and G. Friedman, "Optimization of radiation patterns for an array of concentric ring sources," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust., Vol. 21, No. 1, 57-61, Feb. 1973.
28. Huebner, D., "Design and optimization of small concentric ring arrays," Proc. IEEE Antennas Propagation Int. Symp., Vol. 16, 455-458, May 1978.
29. Dessouky, M. I., H. A. Sharshar, and Y. A. Albagory, "Effcient sidelobe reduction technique for small-sized concentric circular arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 65, 187-200, 2006.
30. Dessouky, M. I., H. A. Sharshar, and Y. A. Albagory, "Optimum normalized-Gaussian tapering window for side lobe reduction in uniform concentric circular arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 69, 35-46, 2007.