Vol. 97

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2020-10-21

A Study on Electromagnetic Field and Force for Magnetic Micro-Robots Applications

By Chuan Qu, Yong-Chen Pei, Long Xu, Zheng-Rong Xia, and Qing-Yuan Xin
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 97, 201-213, 2020
doi:10.2528/PIERM20073005

Abstract

Magnetic micro-robots are used widely in a narrow space, such as internal inspections and desilting of slender pipelines, minimal- or non-invasive diagnoses and treatments of various human diseases in blood vessels, and micro-manipulations, micro-sensing fields. Magnetic micro-robots are usually driven by several electromagnetic coils. It is essential to understand the magnetic field and magnetic forces acting on micro-robots to drive the magnetic micro-robots more effectively. In this paper, the finite element method is applied to simulate the magnetic field generated by a coil assembly. Moreover, a three-dimensional magnetic force simulation is also performed to reveal the magnetic forces acting on a cylindrical magnetic micro-robot. Experimental measurements validate the simulated results. A Hall sensor is used to measure the magnetic field along the coil assembly's axial and radial direction. The micro-robot is glued to a connecting rod, fixing a force sensor to measure the magnetic forces acting on it. The measured results are in good accordance with the simulated ones, which prove the validity of the simulation. The results from this study show potential to provide a reference to magnetic micro-robot applications.

Citation


Chuan Qu, Yong-Chen Pei, Long Xu, Zheng-Rong Xia, and Qing-Yuan Xin, "A Study on Electromagnetic Field and Force for Magnetic Micro-Robots Applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 97, 201-213, 2020.
doi:10.2528/PIERM20073005
http://www.jpier.org/PIERM/pier.php?paper=20073005

References


    1. Kim, K., J. Guo, X. Xu, and D. L. Fan, "Recent progress on man-made inorganic nanomachines," Small, Vol. 11, No. 33, 4037-4057, 2015.
    doi:10.1002/smll.201500407

    2. Wang, W., W. Duan, Z. Zhang, M. Sun, A. Sen, and T. E. Mallouk, "A tale of two forces: Simultaneous chemical and acoustic propulsion of bimetallic micromotors," Chemical Communications, Vol. 51, No. 6, 1020-1023, 2015.
    doi:10.1039/C4CC09149C

    3. Xu, T., W. Gao, L. P. Xu, X. Zhang, and S. Wang, "Fuel-free synthetic micro-/nanomachines," Advanced Materials, Vol. 29, No. 9, 1603250, 2017.
    doi:10.1002/adma.201603250

    4. Pak, O. S., W. Gao, J. Wang, and E. Lauga, "High-speed propulsion of flexible nanowire motors: Theory and experiments," Soft Matter, Vol. 7, No. 18, 8169-8181, 2011.
    doi:10.1039/c1sm05503h

    5. Pawashe, C., S. Floyd, E. Diller, and M. Sitti, "Two-dimensional autonomous microparticle manipulation strategies for magnetic microrobots in fluidic environments," IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol. 28, No. 2, 467-477, 2012.
    doi:10.1109/TRO.2011.2173835

    6. Fusco, S., M. S. Sakar, S. Kennedy, C. Peters, R. Bottani, F. Starsich, A. Mao, G. A. Sotiriou, S. Pane, S. E. Pratsinis, D. Mooney, and B. J., "An integrated microrobotic platform for on-demand, targeted therapeutic interventions," Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, No. 6, 952-957, 2014.
    doi:10.1002/adma.201304098

    7. Nelson, B. J., I. K. Kaliakatsos, and J. J. Abbott, "Microrobots for minimally invasive medicine," Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 1, 55-85, 2010.
    doi:10.1146/annurev-bioeng-010510-103409

    8. Sitti, M., H. Ceylan, W. Hu, J. Giltinan, M. Turan, S. Yim, and E. Diller, "Biomedical Applications of Untethered Mobile Milli/Microrobots," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 103, No. 2, 205-224, 2015.
    doi:10.1109/JPROC.2014.2385105

    9. Kim, D. I., H. Lee, S. H. Kwon, Y. J. Sung, W. K. Song, and S. Park, "Bilayer hydrogel sheet-type intraocular microrobot for drug delivery and magnetic nanoparticles retrieval," Advanced Healthcare Materials, Vol. 9, 2000118, 2020.
    doi:10.1002/adhm.202000118

    10. Xie, M., W. Zhang, C. Fan, C. Wu, Q. Feng, J. Wu, Y. Li, R. Gao, Z. Li, Q. Wang, Y. Cheng, and B. He, "Bioinspired soft microrobots with precise magneto-collective control for microvascular thrombolysis," Advanced Materials, Vol. 32, 2000366, 2020.
    doi:10.1002/adma.202000366

    11. Xie, H., M. Sun, X. Fan, Z. Lin, W. Chen, L. Wang, L. Dong, and Q. He, "Reconfigurable magnetic microrobot swarm: Multimode transformation, locomotion, and manipulation," Science Robotics, Vol. 4, No. 28, eaav8006, 2019.
    doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aav8006

    12. He, Y., L. Wang, L. Zhong, Y. Liu, and W. Rong, "Transporting microobjects using a magnetic microrobot at water surfaces," 15th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision ICARCV, 108-112, 2018.

    13. Kim, S. J., G. H. Jang, S. M. Jeon, and J. K. Nam, "A crawling and drilling microrobot driven by an external oscillating or precessional magnetic field in tubular environments," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 117, 17A703, 2015.
    doi:10.1063/1.4906446

    14. Steager, E. B., M. S. Sakar, C. Magee, M. Kennedy, A. Cowley, and V. Kumar, "Automated biomanipulation of single cells using magnetic microrobots," International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 32, No. 3, 346-359, 2013.
    doi:10.1177/0278364912472381

    15. Yu, C., J. Kim, H. Choi, J. Choi, S. Jeong, K. Cha, J. O. Park, and S. Park, "Novel electromagnetic actuation system for three-dimensional locomotion and drilling of intravascular microrobot," Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, Vol. 161, No. 1–2, 297-304, 2010.
    doi:10.1016/j.sna.2010.04.037

    16. Bouchebout, S., A. Bolopion, J. O. Abrahamians, and S. Regnier, "An overview of multiple DoF magnetic actuated micro-robots," Journal of Micro-Nano Mechatronics, Vol. 7, No. 4, 97-113, 2012.
    doi:10.1007/s12213-012-0048-y

    17. Kummer, M. P., J. J. Abbott, B. E. Kratochvil, R. Borer, A. Sengul, and B. J. Nelson, "Octomag: An electromagnetic system for 5-DOF wireless micromanipulation," IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Vol. 26, No. 6, 1006-1017, 2010.
    doi:10.1109/TRO.2010.2073030

    18. Byun, D., J. Choi, K. Cha, J. O. Park, and S. Park, "Swimming microrobot actuated by two pairs of Helmholtz coils system," Mechatronics, Vol. 21, No. 1, 357-364, 2011.
    doi:10.1016/j.mechatronics.2010.09.001

    19. Jeong, S., H. Choi, J. Choi, C. Yu, J. oh Park, and S. Park, "Novel Electromagnetic Actuation (EMA) method for 3-dimensional locomotion of intravascular microrobot," Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical, Vol. 157, No. 1, 118-125, 2010.
    doi:10.1016/j.sna.2009.11.011

    20. Choi, H., J. Choi, S. Jeong, C. Yu, J. O. Park, and S. Park, "Two-dimensional locomotion of a microrobot with a novel stationary electromagnetic actuation system," Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 18, No. 11, 115017, 2009.
    doi:10.1088/0964-1726/18/11/115017

    21. Choi, H., J. Choi, G. Jang, J. O. Park, and S. Park, "Two-dimensional actuation of a microrobot with a stationary two-pair coilsystem," Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 18, No. 5, 055007, 2009.
    doi:10.1088/0964-1726/18/5/055007

    22. Kee, H., H. Lee, H. Choi, and S. Park, "Analysis of drivable area and magnetic force in quadrupole electromagnetic actuation system with movable cores," Measurement, Vol. 161, 107878, 2020.
    doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2020.107878

    23. Okada, T., S. Guo, N. Xiao, F. Qiang, and Y. Yamauchi, "Control of the wireless microrobot with multi-DOFs locomotion for medical applications," 2012 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation ICMA, 2405-2410, 2012.
    doi:10.1109/ICMA.2012.6285722

    24. Li, D., F. Niu, J. Li, X. Li, and D. Sun, "Gradient-enhanced electromagnetic actuation system with a new core shape design for microrobot manipulation," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 67, No. 6, 4700-4710, 2020.
    doi:10.1109/TIE.2019.2928283

    25. Ko, Y., S. Na, Y. Lee, K. Cha, S. Y. Ko, J. Park, and S. Park, "A jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an electromagnetic actuation system," Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 21, No. 5, 057001, 2012.
    doi:10.1088/0964-1726/21/5/057001

    26. Fu, Q., S. Guo, and J. Guo, "Conceptual design of a novel magnetically actuated hybrid microrobot," 2017 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, ICMA, 1001-1005, 2017.
    doi:10.1109/ICMA.2017.8015953

    27. Yesin, K. B., K. Vollmers, and B. J. Nelson, "Modeling and control of untethered biomicrorobots in a fluidic environment using electromagnetic fields," International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 25, No. 5–6, 527-536, 2006.
    doi:10.1177/0278364906065389

    28. Shiri, A. and A. Shoulaie, "A new methodology for magnetic force calculations between planar spiral coils," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 95, 39-57, 2009.
    doi:10.2528/PIER09031608

    29. Marino, H., C. Bergeles, and B. J. Nelson, "Robust electromagnetic control of microrobots under force and localization uncertainties," IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 1, 310-316, 2014.
    doi:10.1109/TASE.2013.2265135

    30. Wang, L. F., M. Dkhil, A. Bolopion, P. Rougeot, S. Regnier, and M. Gauthier, "Simulation and experiments on magnetic microforces for magnetic microrobots applications," 2013 International Conference on Manipulation, Manufacturing and Measurement on the Nanoscale 3M-NANO, 15-20, 2013.
    doi:10.1109/3M-NANO.2013.6737411

    31. Ivan, I. A., G. Hwang, J. Agnus, and M. Rakotondrabe, "First experiments on MagPieR: A planar wireless magnetic and piezoelectric microrobot," 2011 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation Shanghai International Conference Center, 102-108, 2011.
    doi:10.1109/ICRA.2011.5979885

    32. Keuning, J. D., J. D. Vriesy, L. Abelmanny, and S. Misra, "Image-based magnetic control of paramagnetic microparticles in water," 2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 421-426, 2011.

    33. Beleggia, M., M. D. Graef, and Y. T. Millev, "The equivalent ellipsoid of a magnetized body," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 39, No. 5, 891-899, 2006.
    doi:10.1088/0022-3727/39/5/001