Vol. 105
Latest Volume
All Volumes
2021-10-12
Quasi-Optical Beamforming Approach Using Vertically Oriented Dielectric Wedges
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 105, 67-78, 2021
Abstract
Beamforming at mm-Wave and beyond is expected to be a critical need for many emerging applications such as Internet of Things (IoT), vehicular networking systems, and unmanned aerial navigation systems as well as 5G/6G backhaul communications. A new technique is proposed using quasi-optical beamforming that will address the shortcomings of existing beamforming approaches. These structures are passive (or nearly passive) having low cost, low power consumption, compact size and weight, have bandwidth advantages, and are expected to be able to operate at higher frequencies. The proposed structures give sufficient degrees of freedom to control the beamsteering angles by varying the dielectric constants and geometries of these structures and can form simultaneous multiple low overlapping beams. This approach increases the gain of the radiating source resulting in highly directive beams; our studies suggest that sufficient dielectric and shape parameters are available so that electrical tuning of beamformer parameters is possible. These structures are designed for a 1x3 microstrip patch antenna to demonstrate the formation of three simultaneous low overlapping beams. The effects on bandwidth are negligible upto 4.4%, and scanning angle of 180° has been achieved by using vertically oriented dielectric wedges. 6 dB gain enhancement and the capability to scale to larger 2D arrays have also been demonstrated. Full wave simulation results in Ansys HFSS are provided to demonstrate the proposed techniques, and validation is done in CST MWS.
Citation
Pratik Ghate, and Jonathan Bredow, "Quasi-Optical Beamforming Approach Using Vertically Oriented Dielectric Wedges," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 105, 67-78, 2021.
doi:10.2528/PIERM21072501
References

1. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2016.

2. Hansen, R. C., Phased Array Antennas, Vol. 213, John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
doi:10.1002/9780470529188

3. Maharimi, S. F., et al. "Impact of number elements on array factor in linear arrays antenna," 2012 IEEE 8th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and Its Applications, IEEE, Malacca, Malaysia, 2012.

4. Ehyaie, D., "Novel approaches to the design of phased array antennas,", Dissertation, 2011.

5. Ulaby, F. T., E. Michielssen, and U. Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics, 6th Ed., Prentice Hall, Boston, Massachussetts, 2010.

6. Rotman, W. and R. Turner, "Wide-angle microwave lens for line source applications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 11, No. 6, 623-632, 1963.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1963.1138114

7. Zaghloul, A. I. and E. D. Adler, "Compact Rotman lens using metamaterials,", U.S. Patent No. 8,736,503, May 27, 2014.

8. Dong, J. and A. I. Zaghloul, "Hybrid ray tracing method for microwave lens simulation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 10, 3786-3796, 2011.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2163762

9. Hansen, R. C., "Design trades for Rotman lenses," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 39, No. 4, 464-472, 1991.
doi:10.1109/8.81458

10. Moody, H., "The systematic design of the Butler matrix," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 12, No. 6, 786-788, 1964.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1964.1138319

11. Belkin, M. E., et al. "Design of reconfigurable multiple-beam array feed network based on millimeter-wave photonics beamformers," Advances in Array Optimization, InTechOpen, 2019.

12. Butler, J. L., "Multiple beam antenna system employing multiple directional couplers in the leadin,", U.S. Patent No. 3,255,450, Jun. 7, 1966.

13. Uchendu, I. and J. R. Kelly, "Survey of beam steering techniques available for millimeter wave applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 68, 35-54, 2016.
doi:10.2528/PIERB16030703

14. Ruze, J., "Wide-angle metal-plate optics," Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 38, No. 1, 53-59, 1950.
doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1950.232789

15. Kalam, S. V. and A. B. Rathi, "Optimum design of 4×4 symmetrically structured Butler matrix," International Journal of Scienti c Research Engineering, 31-34, 2016.

16. Barry, J., et al. "4×4 X-band butler matrices as antenna beamformers," Multi-Disciplinary Senior Design Conference, Project No. P09343, 2009.

17. Kim, J.-H., et al. "Design of phased array antenna for 5G mm-wave beamforming system," 2016 IEEE 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Antennas and Propagation (APCAP), IEEE, 2016.

18. Charczenko, W., et al. "Integrated optical Butler matrix for beam forming in phased-array antennas," Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas II, Vol. 1217, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1990.

19. Hock, G. C., et al. "Rapid and simple design approach of micro-strip Butler matrix beam-forming network for wireless system," IEICE Electronics Express, Vol. 9, No. 5, 346-351, 2012.
doi:10.1587/elex.9.346

20. Ibrahim, A. Z. and M. K. A. Rahim, "Comparison between three radiation pattern using Butler matrix for beamforming network," Jurnal Teknologi, Vol. 54, No. 1, 25-43, 2011.

21. Mosca, S., et al. "A novel design method for Blass matrix beam-forming networks," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 50, No. 2, 225-232, 2002.
doi:10.1109/8.997999

22. Casini, F., et al. "A novel design method for Blass matrix beam-forming networks," 2007 European Microwave Conference, IEEE, 2007.

23. Attia, H., "Artificial magnetic materials for high gain planar antennas,", Theses, University of Waterloo, 2011.

24. Konstantinidis, K., "Multi-layer periodic surfaces and metasurfaces for high-gain antennas,", Dissertation, University of Birmingham, 2015.

25. Debogović, T., "Dynamic beamwidth control in partially reflective surface antennas," Procedings of the 33rd ESA Antenna Workshop on Challenges for Space Antenna Systems, 2011.

26. Jackson, D. and N. Alexopoulos, "Gain enhancement methods for printed circuit antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 33, No. 9, 976-987, 1985.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1985.1143709

27. James, J. R., et al. "Leaky-wave multiple dichroic beamformers," Electronics Letters, Vol. 25, No. 18, 1209-1211, 1989.
doi:10.1049/el:19890811

28. Feresidis, A. P. and J. C. Vardaxoglou, "High gain planar antenna using optimised partially reflective surfaces," IEE Proceedings - Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 148, No. 6, 345-350, 2001.
doi:10.1049/ip-map:20010828

29. Feresidis, A. and J. C. Vardaxoglou, "Flat plate millimetre wave antenna based on partially reflective FSS," 2001 Eleventh International Conference on Antennas and Propagation, (IEE Conf. Publ. No. 480), Vol. 1, IET, 2001.

30. Arora, C., S. S. Pattnaik, and R. N. Baral, "SRR superstrate for gain and bandwidth enhancement of microstrip patch antenna array," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 76, 73-85, 2017.
doi:10.2528/PIERB17041405

31. Khan, M. R., "A beam steering technique using dielectric wedges,", Dissertation, University of London, 1995.

32. Von Trentini, G., "Partially reflecting sheet arrays," IRE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 4, No. 4, 666-671, 1956.
doi:10.1109/TAP.1956.1144455

33. Ghate, P. and J. Bredow, "Beam deflection using non-planar broadside coupled split ring resonators," 2020 IEEE Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), 245-247, Hong Kong, 2020, doi: 10.1109/APMC47863.2020.9331402.

34. Afzal, M. U., et al. "Beam-scanning antenna based on near-electric field phase transformation and refraction of electromagnetic wave through dielectric structures," IEEE Access, Vol. 8, 199242-199253, 2020.
doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3033284

35. https://www.ansys.com/products/electronics/ansys-hfss.