This paper proposes a fast Minimum-Variance-Distortionless-Response (MVDR) beamforming algorithm for an antenna array for cancellation of multiple interference signals. The proposed algorithm uses Sample-Average Estimate (SAE) of the data covariance matrix and reduces its computational effort by applying the Matrix-Inversion-Lemma (MIL) to its covariance Matrix Inversion (MI) operation. The proposed algorithm is compared to two SAE-based algorithms: the Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI) algorithm that requires an MI operation and the Auxiliary Vector (AV) algorithm that does not need an MI operation. A non-SAE based algorithm using the Least Mean Square (LMS) method is also included for comparison. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm converges slower than the SMI scheme but outperforms the AV and LMS schemes during the transient phase. Once convergence is achieved, the proposed algorithm converges to a better Mean Square Error than the rest of the algorithms evaluated.
2. Hudson, J. E., Adaptive Array Principles, Peter Peregrinus Ltd-IET, 1981.
3. Brennan, L. E., J. D. Mallett, and I. S. Reed, "Adaptive arrays in airborne MTI radar," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga., Vol. 24, 607-615, Sep. 1976.
4. Choi, S., J. Choi, H.-J. Im, and B. Choi, "A novel adaptive beamforming algorithm for antenna array CDMA systems with strong interferers," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 51, No. 5, 808-816, Sep. 2002.
5. Singh, H. and R. Jha, "Trends in adaptive array processing," Int. J. Antennas Progpag., Vol. 2012, 2012.
6. Capon, J., "High-resolution Frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 57, No. 8, 1408-1418, 1969.
7. Haykin, S., Adaptive Filter Theor, 4th Ed., Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2002.
8. Vorobyov, S. A., "Principles of minimum variance robust adaptive beamforming design," Elsevier Signal Processing, Vol. 93, No. 12, 3264-3277, Dec. 2013.
9. Liu, F., J. Wang, C. Y. Sun, and R. Du, "Robust MVDR beamformer for nulling level control via multi-parametric quadratic programming," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 20, 239-254, 2011.
10. Reed, I. S., J. D. Mallett, and L. E. Brennan, "Rapid convergence rate in adaptive arrays," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 10, No. 6, 853-863, Nov. 1974.
11. Horowitz, L. L., H. Blatt, W. G. Brodsky, and D. K. Senne, "Controlling adaptive arrays with the sample matrix inversion algorithm," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 15, 840-847, Nov. 1979.
12. Hara, Y., "Weight-convergence analysis of adaptive antenna arrays based on SMI algorithm," IEEE Trans. Wireless Communications, Vol. 2, No. 4, 749-757, July 2003.
13. Pados, D. A. and G. N. Karystinos, "An iterative algorithm for the computation of the MVDR filter," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 49, No. 2, 290-300.
14. Qian, H. and S. N. Batalama, "Data record-based criteria for the selection of an auxiliary vector estimator of the MMSE/MVDF filter," IEEE Trans. on Commu., Vol. 51, No. 10, 1700-1708.
15. Seguin, E., R. Tessier, E. Knapp, and R. W. Jackson, "A dynamically reconfigurable phased array radar processing system," Proc. Int. Conference on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications, 258-26, 20113.
16. Weedon, W. H., "Phased array digital beamforming hardware development at applied radar," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Phased Array Systems and Technology, 854-859, 2010.
17. Farina, A., Antenna-based Signal Processing Techniques for Radar Systems, Artech House, Norwood, Massachusetts, 1992.
18. Wang, X., E. Aboutanios, M. Trinkle, and M. G. Amin, "Reconfigurable adaptive array beamforming by antenna selection," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 62, No. 9, May 2014.
19. Haupt, R. L., "Phase-only adaptive nulling with a genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga., Vol. 45, 1009-1015, 1997.
20. Massa, A., M. Donelli, F. G. B. De Natale, S. Caorsi, and A. Lommi, "Planar antenna array control with Genetic algorithms and adaptive array theory," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga., Vol. 52, 2919-2924, 2004.
21. Mahmoud, K. R., M. I. Eladawy, R. Bansal, S. H. Zainud-Deen, and S. M. M. Ibrahem, "Analysis of uniform circular arrays for adaptive beamforming applications using particle swarm optimization algorithm," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-aided Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 1, 42-52, Jan. 2008.
22. Jakobsson, A., S. R. Alty, and S. Lambotharan, "On the implementation of the linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs, Vol. 53, No. 10, 1059-1062, Oct. 2006.
23. Amin, M. and W. Sun, "A novel interference suppression scheme for global navigation satellite systems using antenna array," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., Vol. 23, No. 5, 999-1012, 2005.
24. Fante, R. L. and J. J. Vaccaro, "Wideband cancellation of interference in a GPS receive array," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 36, No. 2, 549-564, Apr. 2000.
25. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory, 2nd Ed., John Wiley, New Jersey, 1997.
26. Ong, L. T., "An adaptive beamformer based on adaptive covariance estimator," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 36, 149-160, 2014.
27. Loecker, C., P. Knott, R. Sekora, and S. Algermissen, "Antenna design for a conformal antenna array demonstrator," 2012 6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), 151-153, 2012.
28. Griffith, K. A. and I. J. Gupta, "Effect of mutual coupling on the performance of GPS AJ antennas," IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium, 871-877, 2008.