In this paper, a differentially fed, structurally simple, patch antenna, operating at 5.2 GHz is presented. The proposed antenna is particularly designed for a base station, Gallium Nitride (GaN) transmitter. The antenna is composed of an H-shaped patch, backed by a ground plane, with two differential feeds placed at the longitudinal edges. The size of the antenna is 0.55λ0 x 0.49λ0 x 0.27λ0 (where λ0 is the free space wavelength at the center frequency). A prototype of the stand-alone antenna is designed, fabricated, and measured. The antenna offers a voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) bandwidth of 4% and a differential impedance of 100, which matches most of the differential integrated circuits. The measured gain and directivity of the proposed differential antenna are 5.3 dBi and 7 dB, respectively. From simulation it is observed that the proposed antenna possesses a front to back ratio of 15.69 dB and a 3 dB beamwidth of 84˚. The measured peak efficiencies of the antenna in the lower and higher bands are 84% and 59%, respectively. Details of the design and lumped model, along with the experimental and simulated results, are presented and discussed. The effect of scaling different design parameters for operation at different frequency bands is considered as well.
Ademola Akeem Mustapha,
-Shaped Differential Fed Patch Antenna for a GaN
Base Station Transmitter," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M,
Vol. 80, 181-191, 2019. doi:10.2528/PIERM19020603
1. Ding, C. and K. M. Luk, "Compact differential fed dipole antenna with wide bandwidth stable gain and low cross polarization," Electronic Letters, Vol. 53, No. 15, 1019-1021, 2017. doi:10.1049/el.2017.1972
2. Xue, Q., X. Zhang, and C. H. Chin, "A novel differential fed patch antenna," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 5, No. 1, 471-474, 2006. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2006.885168
3. Gadhafi, R., D. Cracan, A. A. Mustapha, and M. Sanduleanu, "A tuning fork shaped differential dipole antenna with floating reflectors," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 80, 47-52, 2018. doi:10.2528/PIERL18100902
4. Kotani, K., A. Sasaki, and T. Ito, "High efficiency differential drive CMOS rectifier for UHF RFIDs," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 44, No. 11, 3011-3018, 2019. doi:10.1109/JSSC.2009.2028955
5. Le, T., K. Mayaram, and T. Fiez, "Efficient far field energy harvesting for passively powered sensor networks," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 43, No. 5, 1287-1302, 2008. doi:10.1109/JSSC.2008.920318
6. Scorcioni, S., L. Larcher, and A. Bertacchini, "A reconfigurable differential CMOS RF energy scavenger with 60% peak efficiency and 21 dBm sensitivity," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 23, No. 3, 155-157, 2013. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2013.2243376
7. Liu, N. W., L. Zhu, W. W. Choi, and J. D. Zhang, "A differential fed microstrip patch antenna with bandwidth enhancement under operation of TM10 and TM30 modes," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 65, No. 4, 1607-1614, 2007. doi:10.1109/TAP.2017.2670329
8. Arrawatia, M., M. S. Bhaghni, and G. Kumar, "Differential microstrip antenna for energy harvesting," IEEE. Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 63, No. 4, 1581-1588, 2015. doi:10.1109/TAP.2015.2399939
9. See, T. S. P., X. Qing, W. Liu, and Z. N. Chen, "A wideband ultra-thin differential loop fed patch antenna for head implants," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 63, No. 7, 3244-3248, 2015. doi:10.1109/TAP.2015.2422354
10. Han, L., W. Zhang, X. Chen, G. Han, and R. Ma, "Design of a compact differential dual frequency antenna with stacked patches," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 58, No. 4, 1387-1392, 2010. doi:10.1109/TAP.2010.2041146
11. Hu, H. T., F. C. Chen, J. F. Qian, and Q. X. Chu, "A differential filtering microstrip antenna array with intrinsic common mode rejection," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 65, No. 12, 7361-7365, 2017. doi:10.1109/TAP.2017.2764097
12. Pepe, D., L. Vallozi, H. Rogier, and D. Zito, "Planar differential antenna for short range UWB pulse radar sensor," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 12, 1527-1530, 2013. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2291957
13. Wu, H., J. Zhang, L. Han, R. Yang, and W. Zhang, "Differential dual-band antenna-in-package with T-shaped slots," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 11, 1446-1449, 2012. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2012.2228623
14. Jin, H., W. Che, K. S. Chin, G. Shen, W. Yang, and Q. Xue, "60 GHz LTCC differential fed patch antenna array with high gain by using soft surface structures," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 65, No. 1, 206-216, 2017. doi:10.1109/TAP.2016.2631078
15. Wang, Y., F. Zhu, and S. Gao, "Design and investigation of a differential fed UWB patch antenna with polarization diversity," International J. of Antennas and Prop., ID. 4254830, 2016.
16. Tang, Z., J. Liu, and Y. Yin, "Design and measurement of a differential printed antenna for a wireless sensor node," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 16, 2228-2231, 2017.
17. Gadhafi, R., D. Cracan, A. Mustapha, and M. Sanduleanu, "An H-shaped differential antenna for 5G/FR1 applications," IEEE MTT-S Latin America Microwave Conference, Arequipa, Peru, December 12–14, 2018.
18. Zito, D. and D. Pepe, "Planar differential antenna design and integration with pulse radar microchip sensor," IEEE Sensor J., Vol. 14, No. 8, 2477-2487, 2014. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2013.2295678
19. Kumar, G. and K. P. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas, Artech House, 2002, ISBN 1-58053-24-6.
20. Meys, R. and F. Janssens, "Measuring the impedance of balanced antennas by an S-parameter method," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 40, No. 6, 62-65, 1998. doi:10.1109/74.739191
21. Zhang, Y. P. and J. J. Wang, "Theory and analysis of differentially-driven microstrip antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 54, No. 4, 1092-1099, 2006. doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.872597
22. Chouchene, W., C. Larbi, and T. Aguili, "New electrical equivalent circuit model of the inset fed rectangular patch antenna," 2017 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium - Spring (PIERS), 646-651, St Petersburg, Russia, May 22–25, 2017.
23. Electrical Specifications Data Sheet [Online], available at www.markimicrowave.com/Assets/data-sheets/BAL-0106.pdf.
24. Gadhafi, R. and M. Sanduleanu, "A modified patch antenna with square-open loop resonator slot for improved bandwidth performance for in WiFi applications," Adv. in Science, Tech. and Engineering Systems J., Vol. 2, No. 3, 1467-1471, 2017. doi:10.25046/aj0203183