An infrared (IR) pyroelectric detector for applying to the terahertz (THz) waveband that uses diffraction limited focusing of the THz beam on the sensitive area of the detector is studied. The signal to be detected is coupled to the optical window of the detector through a two-wavelength diameter polytetrafluoroethylene spherical particle-lens based on the terajet effect. We have experimentally demonstrated an enhancement of the IR detector sensitivity by 5.6 dB at 0.2 THz without degradation of the noise equivalent power value. The results show that the proposed method could be applied to increase the sensitivity of various commercial IR sensors in the THz range, requiring no modification of the internal structure and may be applied also to acoustics and plasmonics.
"Improvement of IR Pyroelectric Detector Performance in THz
Range Using Wavelength-Scale Sphere-Based Terajet Effect," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters,
Vol. 101, 29-34, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERL21071901
1. Dhillon, S. S., M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Lineld, et al. "The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 50, No. 4, 043001, 2017. doi:
2. Kawase, K., O. Yuichi, W. Yuuki, et al. "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Optics Express, Vol. 11, No. 20, 2549-2554, 2003. doi:The server didn't respond in time.
3. Ferguson, B., S. Wang, D. Gray, et al. "T-ray computed tomography," Optics Letters, Vol. 27, No. 15, 1312-1314, 2002. doi:
4. Federici, J. and L. Moeller, "Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, No. 11, 111101, 2010.
5. Siegel, P. H., "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 52, No. 10, 2438-2447, 2004.
6. Hu, B. B. and M. C. Nuss, "Imaging with terahertz waves," Optics Letters, Vol. 20, No. 16, 1716-1718, 1995.
7. Chernomyrdin, N. V., A. S. Kucheryavenko, G. S. Kolontaeva, et al. "A potential of terahertz solid immersion microscopy for visualizing sub-wavelength-scale tissue spheroids," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 10677, 106771Y, 2018.
8. Minin, I. V. and O. V. Minin, "System of microwave radiovision of three-dimensional objects in real time," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4129, 616-619, 2000.
9. Samura, Y., K. Horio, V. B. Antipov, et al. "Characterization of mesoscopic dielectric cuboid antenna at millimeter-wave band," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 18, No. 9, 1828-1832, 2019.
10. Samura, Y., K. Yamada, O. V. Minin, et al. "High-gain and low-profile dielectric cuboid antenna at J band," 14th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2020.
11. Owda, A. Y., N. Salmon, A. J. Casson, et al. "The re ectance of human skin in the millimeter-wave band," Sensors, Vol. 20, No. 5, 1480, 2020.
12. Ajito, K. and Y. Ueno, "THz chemical imaging for biological applications," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 293-300, 2011.
13. Taylor, Z., J. Garritano, S. Sung, et al. "THz and mm-wave sensing of corneal tissue water content: in vivo sensing and imaging results," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 2, 184-196, 2015.
14. Pagano, M., L. Baldacci, A. Ottomaniello, et al. "THz water transmittance and leaf surface area: An effective nondestructive method for determining leaf water content," Sensors, Vol. 19, No. 22, 4838, 2019.
15. Zang, Z., J. Wang, H. L. Cui, et al. "Terahertz spectral imaging based quantitative determination of spatial distribution of plant leaf constituents," Plant Methods, Vol. 15, No. 1, 106, 2019.
16. Golay, M. J. E., "Theoretical consideration in heat and infrared detection, with particular reference to the pneumatic detector," Review of Scientic Instruments, Vol. 18, No. 5, 347-356, 1947.
17. Stenger, V., M. Shnider, S. Sriram, et al. "Thin film lithium tantalate (TFLT) pyroelectric detectors," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 8261, 82610Q, 2012.
18. Wang, J., J. Gou, and W. Li, "Preparation of room temperature terahertz detector with lithium tantalate crystal and thin film," AIP Advances, Vol. 4, No. 2, 027106, 2014.
19. Paulish, A., A. V. Gusachenko, A. O. Morozov, et al. "Characterization of tetraaminediphenyl- based pyroelectric detector from visible to millimeter wave ranges," Optical Engineering, Vol. 59, No. 6, 061612, 2020.
20. Muller, R., W. Bohmeyer, M. Kehrt, et al. "Novel detectors for traceable THz power measurements," Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Vol. 35, No. 8, 659-670, 2014.
21. Muller, R., B. Gutschwager, J. Hollandt, et al. "Characterization of a large-area pyroelectric detector from 300 GHz to 30 THz," Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Vol. 36, No. 7, 654-661, 2015.
22. Rogalski, A., Infrared Detectors, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, 2010.
23. Neumann, N. and V. Banta, "Comparison of pyroelectric and thermopile detectors," Proceedings of AMA Conferences 2013, 139-143, 2013.
24. Zhao, J., R. Zhu, J. Chen, et al. "Enhanced temperature stability of compensated pyroelectric infrared detector based on Mn:PMN-PT single crystals," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 327, 112757, 2021.
25. Ng, D. K. T., C. P. Ho, T. T. Zhang, et al. "CMOS compatible MEMS pyroelectric infrared detectors: From AlN to ScAlN," Proceeding of SPIE, Vol. 11697, 116970N, 2021.
26. Yang, J., X. Gong, and Y. D. Zhang, "Research of an infrared pyroelectric sensor based THz detector and its application in CW THz imaging," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 7385, 738521, 2009.
27., , Vostok Science and Production Enterprise, http://www.nzpp.ru/product/gotovye- izdeli/fotopriemnye-ustroystva/MG30.pdf.
28. Ivanov, S. D. and E. G. Kostsov, "Thermal detectors of uncooled multi-element infrared imaging arrays. I. Thermally insulated elements," Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing, Vol. 51, No. 6, 601-608, 2015.
29. Kuznetsov, S., A. Paulish, M. Navarro-Ca, et al. "Selective pyroelectric detection of millimetre waves using ultra-thin metasurface absorbers," Scientic Reports, Vol. 6, 21079, 2016.
30. Pacheco-Pena, V., M. Beruete, I. V. Minin, et al. "Terajets produced by dielectric cuboids," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, No. 8, 084102, 2014.
31. Minin, I. V. and O. V. Minin, "Terahertz artificial dielectric cuboid lens on substrate for super-resolution images," Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 10, 326, 2017.
32. Yue, L., B. Yan, J. N. Monks, et al. "A millimetre-wave cuboid solid immersion lens with intensity-enhanced amplitude mask apodization," Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, Vol. 39, No. 6, 546-552, 2018.
33. Pham, H., S. Hisatake, I. V. Minin, et al. "Three-dimensional direct observation of Gouy phase shift in a terajet produced by a dielectric cuboid," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, No. 19, 191102, 2016.
34. Minin, I. V., O. V. Minin, and Y. E. Geints, "Localized EM and photonic jets from non-spherical and non-symmetrical dielectric mesoscale objects: Brief review," Annalen der Physik, Vol. 527, No. 7-8, 491-497, 2015.
35. Minin, I. V., O. V. Minin, J. Delgado-Notario, et al. "Improvement of a terahertz detector performance using the terajet effect in a mesoscale dielectric cube: Proof of concept," Physica Status Solidi-Rapid Research Letters, Vol. 14, No. 5, 1900700, 2020.
36. Minin, I. V., O. V. Minin, J. Salvador-Sanchez, et al. "Responsivity enhancement of a strained silicon field effect transistor detector at 0.3 THz using the terajet effect," Optics Letters, Vol. 46, No. 13, 3061-3064, 2021.
37. Minin, O. V., I. V. Minin, Y. M. Meziani, et al. "Improvement of a point-contact detector performance using the terajet effect initiated by photonics," Optical Engineering, Vol. 60, No. 8, 082005, 2020.
38. D'Angelo, F., Z. Mics, M. Bonn, et al. "Ultra-broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy of common polymers using THz air photonics," Optics Express, Vol. 22, No. 10, 12475-12485, 2014.
39. Folks, W. R., S. K. Pandey, and G. Boreman, "Refractive index at THz frequencies of various plastics," Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series, paper MD10, 2007.
40. Jin, Y. S., G. J. Kim, and S. G. Jeon, "Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers," Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 49, No. 2, 513-517, 2006.
41. Kompfner, R. and N. Williams, "Backward-wave tubes," Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 41, No. 11, 1602-1611, 1953.
42. Hotelling, H., "The generalization of student's ratio," Breakthroughs in Statistics, S. Kotz, N. L. Johnson (Eds), Springer, New York, NY, 1992.
43. Dooley, D., "Sensitivity of broadband pyroelectric terahertz detectors continues to improve," Laser Focus World, Vol. 46, No. 5, 49-53, 2010.
44. Degardin, A., V. Jagtap, M. Razanoelina, et al. "Y-Ba-Cu-O semiconducting pyroelectric thermal sensors: Design and test of near-infrared amorphous thin lm detectors and extension to antenna- coupled THz devices," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 11164, 1116409, 2019.
45. Yamada, K., Y. Samura, O. V. Minin, et al. "Short-range wireless transmitter using mesoscopic dielectric cuboid antenna in 300-GHz Band," Proceeding of 50th European Microwave Conference (EuMC), 195-198, 2021.
46. Tarrazo-Serrano, D., C. Rubio, O. V. Minin, et al. "Ultrasonic focusing with mesoscale polymer cuboid," Ultrasonics, Vol. 106, 106143, 2020.
47. Minin, I. V., O. V. Minin, I. A. Glinskiy, et al. "Plasmonic nanojet: An experimental demonstration," Optics Letters, Vol. 45, No. 12, 3244-3247, 2020.