This paper presents the design, co-simulation, and measurement of a two-stage broadband-cascaded low noise amplifier (LNA) using resistive terminated architecture. This architecture extends the bandwidth of a low-noise amplifier while maintaining a low NF and high flat gain S21. The LNA is designed with planar technology and mounted on an FR4 substrate. The used InGaAs HEMT MGF4918D transistor from Mitsubishi technology has very low noise and operates up to 18 GHz. The reflection coefficient results of the studied LNA are lower than -10 dB. The stability is unconditional over the entire operating band. The measured gain is 14 dB ± 0.75 dB with a minimum NF noise figure of 2.9 ± 0.4 dB. The group delay is 0.605±0.145 ns. The 1 dB compression point is 10.16 dBm, and the third order input intercept point IIP3 is 14.25 dBm. Two-stage cascaded LNA has a total power consumption of 164 mW and occupies an area of 7x1.3 cm2.
1. Le-Ngoc, T. and A. Masmoudi, Full-duplex Wireless Communications Systems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57690-9. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-57690-9
2. Zhang, D., Z. Tian, and G. Wei, "Spatial capacity of narrowband vs. ultra-wideband cognitive radio systems," IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., Vol. 7, 4670-4680, 2008, https://doi.org/10.1109/T-WC.2008.070746. doi:10.1109/T-WC.2008.070746
3. Zhu, J. and S. S. Kia, "UWB ranging aided pedestrian geolocation with GPB-based filtering for LoS and NLoS measurement processing," 2020 IEEE ION Position Locat. Navig. Symp. PLANS, 781-787, IEEE, Portland, OR, USA, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/PLANS46316.2020.9110175.
4. Ling, R. W. C., A. Gupta, A. Vashistha, M. Sharma, and C. L. Law, "High precision UWB-IR indoor positioning system for IoT applications," 2018 IEEE 4th World Forum Internet Things WF-IoT, 135-139, IEEE, Singapore, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/WF-IoT.2018.8355162.
5. Yin, Z., X. Jiang, Z. Yang, N. Zhao, and Y. Chen, "WUB-IP: A high-precision UWB positioning scheme for indoor multiuser applications," IEEE Syst. J., Vol. 13, 279-288, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSYST.2017.2766690. doi:10.1109/JSYST.2017.2766690
6. Poulose, A., O. S. Eyobu, M. Kim, and D. S. Han, "Localization error analysis of indoor positioning system based on UWB measurements," 2019 Elev. Int. Conf. Ubiquitous Future Netw. ICUFN, 84-88, IEEE, Zagreb, Croatia, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICUFN.2019.8806041.
7. Kumar, A. R. A., A. Dutta, and B. D. Sahoo, "A low-power reconfigurable narrowband/wideband lna for cognitive radio-wireless sensor network," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. VLSI Syst., Vol. 28, 212-223, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/TVLSI.2019.2939708. doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2019.2939708
8. Xie, H., Y. J. Cheng, and Y. Fan, "A K-band high interference-rejection GaAs low-noise amplifier using multizero control method for satellite communication," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett., Vol. 30, 1069-1072, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/LMWC.2020.3026075. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2020.3026075
9. Kim, S. H. and Y. C. Rhee, "Implementation of Ku-band low noise block for global multi-band digital satellite broadcasting," The Journal of the Korea Institute of Electronic Communication Sciences, Vol. 11, 23-28, 2016. doi:10.13067/JKIECS.2016.11.1.23
10. Marimuthu, J., K. S. Bialkowski, and A. M. Abbosh, "Software-defined radar for medical imaging," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., 1-10, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2015.2511013. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2015.2511013
11. Ha, H. K., "CMOS ultrasonic analogue front-end with reconfigurable pulser/switch for medical imaging applications," Electronics Letters, Vol. 51, No. 20, 1564-1566, 2015. doi:10.1049/el.2015.2440
12. Stefigraf, I. and S. Rajaram, "Layout design of X-band low noise amplifier for radar applications," International Symposium on VLSI Design and Test, 140-156, Springer, Singapore, 2018, doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-5950-7 13.
13. Jeon, S.-Y., K. Nikitin, A. Dewantari, J. Kim, and M.-H. Ka, "Low-noise amplifier protection switch using p-i-n diodes with tunable open stubs for solid-state pulsed radar," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett., Vol. 27, 1004-1006, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1109/LMWC.2017.2750029. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2017.2750029
14. Feng, C., X. P. Yu, Z. H. Lu, W. M. Lim, and W. Q. Sui, "3-10 GHz self-biased resistive-feedback LNA with inductive source degeneration," Electron. Lett., Vol. 49, 387-388, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1049/el.2012.4472. doi:10.1049/el.2012.4472
15. Shim, Y., C.-W. Kim, J. Lee, and S.-G. Lee, "Design of full band UWB common-gate LNA," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett., Vol. 17, 721-723, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1109/LMWC.2007.905633. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2007.905633
16. Kobayashi, K. W., D. Denninghoff, and D. Miller, "A novel 100 MHz-45 GHz input-termination-less distributed amplifier design with low-frequency low-noise and high linearity implemented with a 6 inch 0.15 mm GaN-SiC wafer process technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 51, 2017-2026, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2016.2558488. doi:10.1109/JSSC.2016.2558488
17. Fukui, H., "Optimal noise figure of microwave GaAs MESFE," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 26, No. 7, 1032-1037, Jul. 1979, doi: 10.1109/T-ED.1979.19541. doi:10.1109/T-ED.1979.19541
18. Iversen, S., "The effect of feedback on noise figure," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 63, 540-542, 1975, https://doi.org/10.1109/PROC.1975.9784. doi:10.1109/PROC.1975.9784
19. Friis, H. T., "Noise figures of radio receiver," Proceedings of the IRE, Vol. 32, 419-422, 1994, doi: 10.1109/JRPRO.1944.232049. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1944.232049
20. Rollett, J., "Stability and power-gain invariants of linear two ports," IRE Trans. Circuit Theory, Vol. 9, 29-32, 1962, https://doi.org/10.1109/TCT.1962.1086854. doi:10.1109/TCT.1962.1086854
21. Edwards, M. L. and J. H. Sinsky, "A new criterion for linear 2-port stability using a single geometrically derived parameter," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 40, 2303-2311, 1992, https://doi.org/10.1109/22.179894. doi:10.1109/22.179894
22. Arekapudi, S., E. Iroaga, and B. Murmann, "A low-power distributed wide-band LNA in 0.18 μm CMOS," 2005 IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., 5055-5058, IEEE, Kobe, Japan, 2005, https://doi.org/10.1109/ISCAS.2005.1465770.
23. Ahn, K., R. Ishikawa, and K. Honjo, "Low noise group delay equalization technique for UWB InGaP/GaAs HBT LNA," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett., Vol. 20, No. 7, 405-407, Jul. 2010, doi: 10.1109/LMWC.2010.2049441. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2010.2049441
24. Park, Y., C. Lee, J. D. Cressler, and J. Laskar, "The analysis of UWB SiGe HBT LNA for its noise, linearity, and minimum group delay variation," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 54, 1687-1697, 2006, https://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2006.872000. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2006.872000
25. Chen, M. and J. Lin, "A 0.1-20 GHz low-power self-biased resistive-feedback LNA in 90 nm digital CMOS," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett., Vol. 19, 323-325, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1109/LMWC.2009.2017608. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2009.2017608
26. Jarndal, A. H. and A. M. Bassal, "A broadband hybrid GaN cascode low noise amplifier for WiMax applications," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-aided Engineering, Vol. 2, 2018.
27. Jarndal, A., A. Hussein, G. Crupi, and A. Caddemi, "Reliable noise modeling of GaN HEMTs for designing low-noise amplifiers," Int. J. Numer. Model. Electron. Netw. Devices Fields, Vol. 33, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1002/jnm.2585.
28. El Bakkali, M., N. A. Touhami, and T.-E. Elhamadi, "High gain cascaded GaAs-pHEMT broadband planar low noise amplifier for WiMAX-80.16b application," WITS, 1101-1110, Springe, Singapore, 2022.