The transmission spectrum of electromagnetic waves through a one-dimensional photonic star waveguides (SWGs) structure is obtained using the Green function method (GFM). The proposed structure is composed of a finite number of periodic cells; each cell contains a segment of length d1 grafted in its extremity by resonators of length d2. This periodic system is altercated by insertion of defects resonators located in three different sites, which have lengths d02, d04, and d06 different from that of the perfect resonators. The properties of such a multi-defects structure are suitable for tunable very narrow band multichannel filter applications in microwave domain. The perfect photonic structure demonstrates large microwave photonic band gaps (PBGs) in which the propagation of electromagnetic waves is prohibited. For the sake of comparison, we first introduce single defect resonators located in one site; this defect creates hence two transmission peaks (defect modes) in the gaps. These induced modes of noticeable transmissions and good quality factors permit our proposed SWGs to behave like a single narrow band channel filter. Several localized modes appear in the band gaps whenweintroduce three resonators defects of different lengths and located in three different sites. With an appropriate choice of the geometrical parameters d1 = 1 m,d2 = 0.5 m, d02 = d04=d06 = 2 m, our thrice defectives system can create, in the microwave frequencies range, till eight transmission peaks in the gaps when the defects are located in three consecutive sites.These peaks have very high values of transmission rates and important quality factors reaching Q=610000. Therefore, our proposed system acts as very narrow band multichannel filters for which defects modes shift towards the low frequencies when the defects resonators lengths increase. The results obtained demonstrate the dependence of the defect modes frequencies, transmission coefficient, and the quality factor on the resonators defects lengths, their numbers, and their positions inside the defective structure.
2. Zakaria, Z., M. A. Mutalib, K. Jusoff, M. M. Isa, M. A. Othman, B. H. Ahmad, and S. Suhaimi, "Current developments of microwave filters for wideband applications," World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 21, 31-40, 2013.
3. Wang, X., Z. Gong, K. Dong, S. Lou, J. Slack, A. Anders, and J. Yao, "Tunable Bragg filters with a phase transition material defect layer," Optics Express, Vol. 24, 20365-20372, 2016.
4. Errouas, Y., Y. Ben-Ali, Z. Tahri, and D. Bria, "Propagation of electromagnetic waves in one dimensional symmetric and asymmetric Comb-like photonic structure containing defects," Materials Today: Proceedings, 1-8, 2020.
5. Essadqui, A., J. Ben-Ali, D. Bria, B. Djafari-Rouhani, and A. Nougaoui, "Photonic band structure of 1D periodic composite system with left handed and right handed materials by green function approach," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 23, 229-249, 2010.
6. Dai, D., "Multi-channel wavelength/mode-division-multiplexers on silicon," Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Optical Society of America, 1-3, 2016.
7. Watada, K., G. O. K. A. Shigeyoshi, S. Kakio, F. Kobayashi, Nonaka, and R. K. Wada, "Power transmission characteristics of EWC-SPUDT SAW filters fabricated for multiplex transmission system of inverter gate drive circuits," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 59, 1-6, 2020.
8. Wasthi, S. K., R. Panda, A. Verma, P. K. Chauhan, and L. Shiveshwari, "Microwave multichannel tunable filter based on transmission and reflection properties of 1D magnetized plasma photonic crystal heterostructures," Indian Journal of Physics, 1-14, 2019.
9. Elsayed, H. A., "A multi-channel optical filter by means of one dimensional n doped semiconductor dielectric photonic crystals," Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 216, 191-196, 2018.
10. Qi, Y., P. Zhou, T. Zhang, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Liu, and X. Wang, "Theoretical study of a multichannel plasmonic waveguide notch filter with double-sided nanodisk and two slot cavities," Results in Physics, Vol. 14, 102506-120513, 2019.
11. Ben-Ali, Y., Z. Tahri, A. Ouariach, and D. Bria, "Double frequency filtering by photonic comb-like," 2018 International Symposium on Advanced Electrical and Communication Technologies (ISAECT), 1-6, IEEE, 2019.
12. Ben-Ali, Y., Z. Tahri, and D. Bria, "Electromagnetic filters based on a single negative photonic comb-like," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 92, 41-56, 2019.
13. Ben-Ali, Y., Z. Tahri, F. Falyouni, and D. Bria, "Study about a filter using a resonator defect in a one dimensional photonic comb containing a left-hand material," Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Electronic Engineering and Renewable Energy, ICEERE, Vol. 519, 146-156, Saidia, 2018.
14. Vasseur, J. O., P. A. Deymier, B. Djafari-Rouhani, L. Dobrzynski, and A. Akjouj, "Absolute band gaps and electromagnetic transmission in quasi-one-dimensional comb structures," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 55, 10434-10442, 1997.
15. Dolorzynski, L., A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, and J. Zemmouri, "Giant gaps in photonic band structures," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 57, 9388-9391, 1998.
16. Ben-Ali, Y., I. El Kadmiri, Z. Tahri, and D. Bria, "Defects modes in one-dimensional photonic filter star waveguide structure," Materials Today: Proceeding, Vol. 27, 3042-3050, 2020.
17. Vasseur, J. O., P. A. Deymier, L. Dolorzynski, B. Djafari-Rouhani, and A. F. Akjouj, "Defect modes in one-dimensional comblike photonic waveguides," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 59, 13446-13452, 1999.
18. Djafari-Rouhani, B., E. H. El Boudouti, A. Akjouj, L. Dobrzynski, J. O. Vasseur, A. Mir, N. Fettouhi, and J. Zemmouri, "Surface states in one-dimensional photonic band gap structures," Vacuum, Vol. 63, 177-183, 2001.
19. Ben-Ali, Y., A. Ghadban, Z. Tahri, K. Ghoumid, and D. Bria, "Accordable filters by defect modes in single and double negative star waveguides grafted dedicated to electromagnetic communications applications," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 34, No. 4, 539-558, 2020.
20. Ben-Ali, Y., Z. Tahri, A. Bouzidi, Bria, D. Khettabi, and A. Nougaoui, "Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing two defects," Journal of Materials and Environmental Sciences, Vol. 8, 870-876, 2017.
21. Bouzidi, A., D. Bria, A. Akjouj, and H. Berkhli, "Optical liquid sensor based on periodic multilayers structure," 2016 International Conference on Electrical and Information Technologies (ICEIT), 245-249, IEEE, 2016.
22. Bouzidi, A., D. Bria, A. Akjouj, Y. Pennec, and B. Djafari-Rouhani, "A tiny gas-sensor system based on 1D photonic crystal," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 48, 495102-495109, 2015.
23. Li, L., G. Q. Liu, K. Huang, Y. H. Chen, L. X. Gong, and F. L. Tang, "The water content sensor in heavy oil based on one-dimensional photonic crystals," Optik-International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, Vol. 124, 2519-2521, 2013.
24. Habli, O., Y. Bouazzi, and M. Kanzari, "Gas sensing using one-dimensional photonic crystal nanoresonators," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 92, 251-263, 2019.
25. Al-Wahsh, H., A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, J. O. Vasseur, L. Dobrzynski, and P. A. Deymier, "Large magnonic band gaps and defect modes in one-dimensional comblike structures," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 59, 8709-8719, 1999.
26. Rouhani, B. D., J. O. Vasseur, A. Akjouj, L. Dobrzynski, M. S. Kushwaha, P. A. Deymier, and J. Zemmouri, "Giant stop bands and defect modes in one-dimensional waveguide with dangling side branches," Progress in Surface Science, Vol. 59, 255-264, 1998.
27. Al-Wahsh, H., A. Akjouj, B. Djafari-Rouhani, A. Mir, and L. Dobrzynski, "Effect of pinning fields on the spin wave band gaps in comblike structures," The European Physical Journal B — Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Vol. 37, 499-506, 2004.
28. Elamri, F. Z., F. Falyouni, A. Kerkour-El Miad, and D. Bria, "Effect of defect layer on the creation of electronic states in GaAs/GaAlAs multi-quantum wells," Applied Physics A, Vol. 125, 740-751, 2019.
29. Ghadban, A., K. Ghoumid, A. Bouzidi, and D. Bria, "Coupled selective electromagnetic waves in 1D photonic crystal with two planar cavities," 2016 5th International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), 753-756, IEEE, 2016.
30. Khaled, A., F. Z. Elamri, I. El Kadmiri, and D. Bria, "Effects of defect layers insertion on the transmission of a submerged one-dimensional phononic structure," 2019 International Conference on Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems (WITS), 1-6, IEEE, 2019.
31. Cui, L., Y. Tang, H. Jia, J. Luo, and B. Gnade, "Analysis of the multichannel WDM-VLC communication system," Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 34, 5627-5634, 2016.
32. Fallahi, V., M. Seifouri, and M. Mohammadi, "A new design of optical add/drop filters and multi-channel filters based on hexagonal PhCRR for WDM systems," Photonic Network Communications, Vol. 37, 100-109, 2019.
33. El Boudouti, E. H., T. Mrabti, H. Al-Wahsh, B. Djafari-Rouhani, A. Akjouj, and L. Dobrzynski, "Transmission gaps and Fano resonances in an acoustic waveguide: Analytical model," Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 20, 255212-255223, 2008.
34. Mouadili, A., E. H. El Boudouti, A. Soltani, A. Talbi, B. Djafari-Rouhani, A. Akjouj, and K. Haddadi, "Electromagnetically induced absorption in detuned stub waveguides: A simple analytical and experimental model," Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 26, 505901, 2014.
35. Cocoletzi, G. H., L. Dobrzynski, B. Djafari-Rouhani, H. Al-Wahsh, and D. Bria, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in quasi-one-dimensional comb-like structures made up of dissipative negative phase-velocity materials," Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 18, 3683-3690, 2006.
36. Yin, C. P. and H. Z. Wang, "Narrow transmission bands of quasi-1D comb-like photonic waveguides containing negative index materials," Physics Letters A, Vol. 373, 1093-1096, 2009.
37. Weng, Y., Z. G. Wang, and H. Chen, "Band structure of comb-like photonic crystals containing meta-materials," Optics Communications, Vol. 277, 80-83, 2007.
38. Zhang, L., Z. Wang, H. Chen, H. Li, and Y. Zhang, "Experimental study of quasi-one-dimensional comb-like photonic crystals containing left-handed material," Optics Communications, Vol. 281, 3681-3685, 2008.
39. Tan, W., Y. Sun, Z. G. Wang, and H. Chen, "Propagation of photons in metallic chain through side-branch resonators," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 44, 335101-335101, 2011.
40. Tan, W., Z. Wang, and H. Chen, "Complete tunneling of light through mu-negative media," Progress In Electromagnetic Research M, Vol. 8, 27-37, 2009.
41. Foresi, S., P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgapmicrocavities in optical waveguides," Nature London, Vol. 390, 143-145, 1997.
42. Feiertag, G., W. Ehrfeld, H. Freimuth, H. Kolle, H. Lehr, M. Schmidt, M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, G. Kiriakidis, T. Pedersen, J. Kuhl, and W. Koenig, "Fabrication of photonic crystals by deep x-ray lithography," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 71, 1441-1443, 1997.