Vol. 114

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Multilayered Implantable Antenna Biosensor for Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Design and Analysis

By Rahul B. Khadase, Anil Nandgaonkar, Brijesh Iyer, and Abhay E. Wagh
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 114, 173-184, 2021


This article reports a multilayer implantable biosensor for a continuous glucose monitoring system, tested on rats to determine the relationship between intravenous glucose level and resonance frequency of implant antenna sensor. An implantable antenna sensor with the volume 330.9 mm3 is tested in three rats as an animal model. This antenna biosensor operates in the Medical Implant Communication Service frequency band (402-405 MHz) with the simulated and measured maximum gains of -13.33 and -21.1 dB, respectively. The specific absorption rate obtained is within the standard limits. An oral glucose tolerance test is proposed to obtain the variation in blood glucose level in the animal's body during measurement. The resonance frequency shift and the corresponding blood glucose level are observed at a regular interval of 30 minutes. A frequency shift of 4.94 kHz per mg/dL is observed. Also, the results related to the reflection coefficient and the factors affecting sensor performance are discussed. The biosensor performance is validated using the proposed simple linear regression model.


Rahul B. Khadase, Anil Nandgaonkar, Brijesh Iyer, and Abhay E. Wagh, "Multilayered Implantable Antenna Biosensor for Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Design and Analysis," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 114, 173-184, 2021.


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