Two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic scattering from a target above the sea with breaking water wave is studied by a multiregional iterative analytical-numerical method that combines the boundary integral method (BIM) and the Kirchhoff approximation (KA). Based on the ``Pierson-Moskowitz'' (PM) sea surface and the LONGTANK breaking wave, a theoretical model of a target above the rough sea surface with breaking wave is built firstly in this paper. Unlike traditional sea surface, the multipath scattering between the crest of the breaking wave and the target cannot be accurately predicted based on KA alone. To improve the algorithm precision, a multiregional hybrid analytical-numerical method is proposed. In our multiregional model, the whole sea is divided into two subregions: the breaking wave and the PM sea surface. The scattering from the breaking wave and the object is well approximated by BIM, while the PM sea surfaces can be estimated very well by KA based on Fresnel theories. Taking the interaction between KA region and BIM region into account, an iterative system is developed which gives a quick convergence. The hybrid technique presented here is highly efficient in terms of computing memory, time consumed, and versatility.
"Scattering from a Target Above Rough Sea Surface with Breaking Water Wave by an Iterative Analytic-Numerical Method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M,
Vol. 41, 115-123, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM15011501
1. Holliday, D., L. L. De Raad, Jr., and G. J. St-Cyr, "Sea-spike backscatter from a steepening wave," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 46, 108-113, 1998. doi:10.1109/8.655457
3. Zhao, Z. and J. C.West, "Low-grazing-angle microwave scattering from a three-dimensional spilling breaker crest: A numerical investigation," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 43, 286-294, Feb. 2005. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2004.840644
4. Li, Y. and J. C. West, "Low-grazing-angle scattering from 3-D breaking water wave crests," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 44, 2093-2101, 2006. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2006.872129
5. Qi, C., Z. Zhao, W. Yang, Z.-P. Nie, and G. Chen, "Electromagnetic scattering and Doppler analysis of three-dimensional breaking wave crests at low-grazing angles," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 239-252, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIER11062401
6. Yang, W., Z. Zhao, C. Qi, and Z. Nie, "Electromagnetic modeling of breaking waves at low grazing angles with adaptive higher order hierarchical legendre basis functions," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 49, 346-352, 2011. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2010.2052817
7. Luo, W., M. Zhang, C. Wang, and H.-C. Yin, "Investigation of low-grazing-angle microwave backscattering from three-dimensional breaking sea waves," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 279-298, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIER11062607
8. West, J. C. and Z. Q. Zhao, "Electromagnetic modeling of multipath scattering from breaking water waves with rough faces," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 40, 583-592, 2002. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2002.1000318
9. Ye, H. and Y. Q. Jin, "Fast iterative approach to difference scattering from the target above a rough surface," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 40, 108-115, 2006.
10. Kubicke, G., C. Bourlier, and J. Saillard, "Scattering from canonical objects above a sea-like one-dimensional rough surface from a rigorous fast method," Waves in Random and Complex Media, Vol. 20, 156-178, Jan. 2010. doi:10.1080/17455030903476712
11. Ye, H. and Y.-Q. Jin, "A hybrid analytic-numerical algorithm of scattering from an object above a rough surface," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 45, 1174-1179, 2007. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2007.892609
12. Wang, P., Y. Yao, and M. P. Tulin, "An efficient numerical tank for nonlinear water waves, based on the multi-subdomain approach with BEM," Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, Vol. 20, 1315-1336, 1995. doi:10.1002/fld.1650201203
13. Tsang, L., J. A. Kong, K. H. Ding, and C. O. Ao, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves: Numerical Simulations, Wiley, New York, 2001. doi:10.1002/0471224308
14. Thorsos, E. I., "The validity of the Kirchhoff approximation for rough surface scattering using a Gaussian roughness spectrum," J. Acous. Soc. Am., Vol. 83, 78-92, 1988. doi:10.1121/1.396188
15. Balanis, C. A., Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, Wiley, New York, 1989.
16. Debye, P., Polar Molecules, Chemical Catalog, New York, 1929.