This paper evaluates the effect of glasses on the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and the absorbed power in the human head exposed to microwave from wireless eyewear device at phone call state. Due to the sensitivity of eyes to microwave, this paper mainly concentrate on the SAR and the absorbed power in ocular tissues. The calculated results indicate that wearing glasses can obviously increase the maximal SAR and the absorbed power in ocular tissues. Glasses has almost doubled the maximal SAR in ocular tissues. The absorbed power with glasses is about 3.1-4.5 times as big as that without glasses. Furthermore, we find that the maximal SAR and absorbed power are sensitive to the width of glass leg and the thickness of spectacle lens, while variation trends with the varying glasses size are quite different. Hypermyopia patient might suffer from higher risk of getting the oculopathy due to the larger SAR caused by the thicker spectacle lens. In conclusion, wearing glasses may pose higher health risk on eyes of wireless eyewear device user. This paper would provide valuable reference data for the future evaluation of microwave biological effect on eyes.
1. Cihangir, A., et al., "Feasibility study of 4G cellular antennas for eyewear communicating devices," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, 1704-1707, 2013. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2287204
2. Cihangir, A., et al., "Investigation of the effect of metallic frames on 4G eyewear antennas," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Conference, 60-63, 2014.
3. Caputa, K., M. Okoniewski, and M. A. Stuchly, "An algorithm for computations of the power deposition in human tissue," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 41, 102-107, 1999. doi:10.1109/74.789742
4. Hirata, A., S. I. Matsuyama, and T. Shiozawa, "Temperature rises in the human eye exposed to EMwaves in the frequency range 0.6–6 GHz," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 42, No. 4, 386-393, 2000. doi:10.1109/15.902308
5. Cacciola, M., et al., "Numerical modelling for evaluation of biological effects due to high frequency radiations in Indoor Environment," PIERS Online, Vol. 6, No. 3, 247-251, 2010. doi:10.2529/PIERS090922051636
6. Bernardi, P., et al., "SAR distribution and temperature increase in an anatomical model of the human eye exposed to the field radiated by the user antenna in a wireless LAN," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory & Techniques, Vol. 46, No. 12, 2074-2082, 1998. doi:10.1109/22.739285
7. Laakso, I., et al., "Computational dosimetry of the human head exposed to near-field microwaves using measured blood flow," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 59, No. 2, 739-746, 2017. doi:10.1109/TEMC.2016.2633326
8. Hossain, M. I., M. R. I. Faruque, and M. T. Islam, "Analysis on the effect of the distances and inclination angles between human head and mobile phone on SAR," Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Vol. 119, No. 2, 103-110, 2015. doi:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2015.03.008
9. Wake, K., et al., "The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 54, 5695-5706, 2009. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/54/19/003
10. Cooper, J. and V. Hombach, "Increase in specific absorption rate in human heads arising from implantations," Electronics Letters, Vol. 32, No. 24, 2217-2219, 1996. doi:10.1049/el:19961507
11. Whittow, W. G., et al., "On the effects of straight metallic jewellery on the specific absorption rates resulting from face-illuminating radio communication devices at popular cellular frequencies," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 53, No. 5, 1167-1174, 2008. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/53/5/002
12. Stergiou, K., C. Panagamuwa, W. Whittow, and R. Edwards, "Effects of metallic semi-rimmed spectacles on SAR in the head from a 900MHz frontal dipole source," Antennas & Propagation Conference, IEEE, 721-724, 2009.
13. Troulis, S. E., W. G. Scanlon, and N. E. Evans, "Effect of ‘hands-free’ leads and spectacles on SAR for a 1.8GHz cellular handset," IEI/IEE Symposium on Telecommunications Systems Research, 1675-1684, 2001.
14. Lan, J. Q. and K. M. Huang, "Evaluation of SAR in a human head with glasses exposed to radiation of a mobile phone," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 27, No. 15, 1919-01930, 2013. doi:10.1080/09205071.2013.828576
15., Virtanen, H., J. Keshvari, and R. Lappalainen, "The effect of authentic metallic implants on the SAR distribution of the head exposed to 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz dipole near field," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 52, No. 5, 1221, 2007. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/52/5/001
16. Anzaldi, G., F. Silva, M. Fernandez, M. Quilez, and P. J. Riu, "Initial analysis of SAR from a cell phone inside a vehicle by numerical computation biomedical engineering," IEEE T. Bio-Med. Eng., Vol. 54, 921-930, 2007. doi:10.1109/TBME.2006.889776
17. World Health Organization, WHO Research Agenda for Radiofrequency Fields, 2010.
18. Dovrat, A., et al., "Localized effects of microwave radiation on the intact eye lens in culture conditions," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 26, No. 5, 398-405, 2005. doi:10.1002/bem.20114
19. Guy, A. W., et al., "Effect of 2450-MHz radiation on the rabbit eye," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 23, No. 6, 492-498, 1975. doi:10.1109/TMTT.1975.1128606
20. Scott, J. A., "The computation of temperature rises in the human eye induced by infrared radiation," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 33, 243-257, 1988. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/33/2/004
21. Hirata, A., et al., "Computational verification of anesthesia effect on temperature variations in rabbit eyes exposed to 2.45 GHz microwave energy," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 27, No. 8, 602-612, 2006. doi:10.1002/bem.20251
22. Pall, M. L., "Scientific evidence contradicts findings and assumptions of Canadian safety panel 6: microwaves act through voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for microwave/lower frequen," Reviews on Environmental Health, Vol. 30, No. 2, 99-116, 2015. doi:10.1515/reveh-2015-0001
23. Buccella, C., V. De Santis, and M. Feliziani, "Numerical prediction of SAR and thermal elevation in a 0.25-mm 3-D model of the human eye exposed to handheld transmitters," IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 1-6, 2007.
24. Rodrigues, A. O., et al., "A head model for the calculation of SAR and temperature rise induced by cellular phones," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 44, No. 6, 1446-1449, 2008. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2008.915837
25. Gandhi, O. P., G. Lazzi, and C. M. Furse, "Electromagnetic absorption in the human head and neck for mobile telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz," IEEE T. Microw. Theory., Vol. 44, 1884-1897, 1996. doi:10.1109/22.539947
26. Van Leeuwen, G. M., J., J. J.W. Lagendijk, B. J. A. M. Van Leersum, A. P. M. Zwamborn, S. N. Hornsleth, and A. N. T. J. Kotte, "Calculation of change in brain temperatures due to exposure to a mobile phone," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 44, 2367-2379, 1999. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/44/10/301
27. Dimbylow, P. J. and S. M. Mann, "SAR calculations in an anatomically realistic model of the head for mobile communication transceivers at 900MHz and 1.8 GHz," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 39, 1537-1553, 1994. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/39/10/003
28. Jensen, M. A. and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "EM interaction of handset antennas and a human in personal communications," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 83, No. 1, 7-17, 1995. doi:10.1109/5.362755
29. Dimbylowt, P. J. and O. P. Gandhif, "Finite-difference time-domain calculations of SAR in a realistic heterogeneous model of the head for plane-wave exposure from 600 MHz to 3 GHz," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 36, 1075-1089, 1991. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/36/8/004
30. Scott, J. A., "A finite element model of heat transport in the human eye," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 33, 227-241, 1988. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/33/2/003
31. Lin, J. C., Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems, Springer, New York, 2005. doi:10.1007/b104216
32. Brien, A. H., "The myopia epidemic is there a role for corneal refractive therapy?," Eye Contact Lens, Vol. 30, 244-246, 2004.
33. IEEE standard for safety levels with respect to human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz — Amendment 1: Specifies ceiling limits for induced and contact current, clarifies distinctions between localized exposure and spatial peak power density, IEEE Std C95.1a-2010 (Amendment to IEEE Std C95.1-2005), C1-9, 2010.
34. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz), Vol. 74, 494-522 Health Phys., 1998.
35. Gabriel, C., R. J. Sheppard, and E. H. Grant, "Dielectric properties of ocular tissues at 37 degrees C," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 28, 43-49, 1983. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/28/1/004
36. Yee, K. S., "Numerical solutions of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 14, 302-307, 1966.
37. Sacks, Z. S., D. M. Kinsland, and J. F. Lee, "A perfectly matched anisotropic absorber for use as an absorbing boundary condition," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 43, 1460-1463, 1995. doi:10.1109/8.477075
38. Gedney, S. D., "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer absorbing media for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 44, 1630-1639, 1996. doi:10.1109/8.546249