Efficiency of high frequency surface wave radars may be improved by inserting a metamaterial in the vicinity of transmitting antennas that will reinforce the propagation of surface waves. This paper deals with the first and second order derivations of the surface impedance boundary conditions (IBC) applied to model such a metamaterial, which is equivalent to a bounded ground with a low negative permittivity. The goal of this paper is to extend an approach previously based on the classical Leontovich IBC which is usually restrained to high permittivity grounds. As shown here, a simplification in the expression of the surface impedance is possible in the case of a planar and homogeneous surface. That allows to have a first order impedance boundary condition substituted for the required second order impedance boundary condition.
"Suitable Impedance Boundary Condition Applied to the Enhancement of the Electric Field Radiated by a High Frequency Surface Wave Radar," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,
Vol. 85, 117-128, 2018. doi:10.2528/PIERC18051805
1. Wu, W., F. Cheng, Z. Yang, and H. Ke, "Broad beam HFSWR array calibration using sea echoes," Radar 2006 CIE 06 International Conference, 1-3, October 2006.
2. Wei, Y., P. Tong, R. Xu, and L. Yu, "Experimental analysis of a HF hybrid sky-surface wave radar," IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, Vol. 33, No. 3, 32-40, March 2018. doi:10.1109/MAES.2018.170036
3. Morel, M. and S. Claisse, "Integrated system for interoperable sensors and information sources for common abnormal vessel behaviour detection and collaborative identification of threat (I2C)," Proc. of the Ocean and Coastal Observation: Sensors and Observing Systems, Numerical Models and Information Systems, 21-23, Brest, France, June 2010.
4. Dzvonkovskaya, A., "HF surface wave radar for tsunami alerting: from system concept and simulations to integration into early warning systems," IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, Vol. 33, No. 3, 48-58, March 2018. doi:10.1109/MAES.2018.160267
5. Park, S., C. J. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Da Costa, S. Lee, and H. Ko, "Coastal ship monitoring based on multiple compact high frequency surface wave radars," 2017 IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI), 565-569, November 2017.
6. Jangal, F., S. Saillant, and M. Helier, "Wavelet contribution to remote sensing of the sea and target detection for a high-frequency surface wave radar," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., Vol. 5, No. 3, 552-556, 2008. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2008.923211
7. Bazin, V., M. Menelle, F. Jangal, G. Auffray, and B. Urbani, "Behavior of the ionosphere on HFSWR: Ionospheric clutter," Proc. APS/URSI Conf., 2009.
8. Bourey, N., F. Jangal, M. Darces, and M. Helier, "Enhancing field strength in HF propagation by using a transition between a metamaterial and the sea," 2013 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2680-2684, April 2013.
9. Karp, S. N. and F. C. Karal, "Vertex excited surface waves on both faces of a right-angled wedge," Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 12, No. 3, 435-455, 1959. doi:10.1002/cpa.3160120304
10. Kane, J. and S. N. Karp, "Simplified theory of diffraction at an interface separating two dielectrics," J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand., Sec. D: Radio Sci., Vol. 68D, No. 3, 303-310, 1964. doi:10.6028/jres.068D.046
11. Leontovich, M. A., "Approximate boundary conditions for the electromagnetic field on the surface of a good conductor," Investigations Radiowave Propagation Part II, Academy of Sciences, 1978.
12. Petrillo, L., F. Jangal, M. Darces, J.-L. Montmagnon, and M. Helier, "Periodic structures to efficiently launch HF surface waves," European Conference on Antennas & Propagation, 655-657, 2011.
13. Darces, M., V. Rannou, Y. Beniguel, and M. Helier, "Optimizing a HF biconical antenna for an over-the-horizon radar," Proc. URSI, Vol. 71, 2007.
14. Petrillo, L., F. Jangal, M. Darces, J.-L. Montmagnon, and M. Helier, "Negative permittivity media able to propagate a surface wave," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 1-10, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIER11020702
15. Rytov, S. M., "Calcul du skin-effet par la methode des perturbations," Journal of Physics, Vol. II, No. 3, 233-242, 1940.
16. Senior, T. B. A. and J. L. Volakis, "Derivation and application of a class of generalized boundary conditions," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat., Vol. 37, No. 12, 1566-1572, December 1989. doi:10.1109/8.45099
17. Volakis, J. L. and T. B. A. Senior, "Application of a class of generalized boundary conditions to scattering by a metal-backed dielectric half-plane," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 77, No. 5, 796-805, May 1989. doi:10.1109/5.32070
18. Norton, K. A., "The propagation of radio waves over the surface of the earth and in the upper atmosphere --- Part II," Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 25, No. 9, 1203-1236, September 1937.
19. Nikitin, A. Yu., S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, "In the diffraction shadow: Norton waves versus surface plasmon polaritons in the optical region," New Journal of Physics, Vol. 11, No. 12, 123020, December 2009. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/11/12/123020
20. Clemmow, P. C., "Radio propagation over a at earth across a boundary separating two different media," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 246, No. 905, 1-55, 1953. doi:10.1098/rsta.1953.0008
21. Wait, J. and K. Spies, "Propagation of radio waves past a coast line with a gradual change of surface impedance," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 12, No. 5, 570-575, September 1964. doi:10.1109/TAP.1964.1138273