This article presents a metamaterial-based microwave sensitive sensor with a complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) structure for nondestructive surface crack detection in pipelines. The CSRR resonator is etched in the ground plane of a microstrip line and is produced using printed circuit board technology. The novelty of the proposed sensor is its structure that allows it to be directly used for nondestructive crack detection in pipelines, based on frequency and Q factor variations, even for cracks under a coating. A measurement setup was used to test the proposed sensor in pipelines of different materials: steel, PVC, and aluminum. The sensor could detect cracks of 1 mm. For a crack of 1 mm, the frequency shift was 6.10 MHz in steel, 2.62 MHz in polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and 1.70 MHz in aluminum. In some conditions, the Q-factor shift measurements were 6.72, 5.18, and 7.15 for steel, PVC, and aluminum, respectively. The proposed sensor features high sensitivity, small dimension, simple design, and easy fabrication.
Euclides Lourenço Chuma,
Luis Ernesto Ynoquio Herrera,
Laez Barbosa da Fonseca Filho,
"Surface Crack Detection in Pipelines Using CSRR Microwave Based Sensor," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,
Vol. 105, 11-21, 2020. doi:10.2528/PIERC20050205
1. Mohitpour, M., Pipeline Design and Construction: A Practical Approach, ASME Press, 2003.
2. Boaz, L., S. Kaijage, and R. Sinde, "An overview of pipeline leak detection and location systems," Proceedings of the 2nd Pan African International Conference on Science, Computing and Telecommunications (PACT 2014), 2014.
3. Jia, Z., Z. Wang, W. Sun, and Z. Li, "Pipeline leakage localization based on distributed FBG hoop strain measurements and support vector machine," Optik, Vol. 176, 1-13, 2019. doi:10.1016/j.ijleo.2018.09.048
4. Brun, K. and R. Kurz, Compression Machinery for Oil and Gas, 1st Edition, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2018.
5. Adegboye, M. A., W.-K. Fung, and A. Karnik, "Recent advances in pipeline monitoring and oil leakage detection technologies: Principles and approaches," Sensors, Vol. 19, 2548, 2019. doi:10.3390/s19112548
6. Baroudi, U., A. A. Al-Roubaiey, and A. Devendiran, "Pipeline leak detection systems and data fusion: A survey," IEEE Access, Vol. 7, 97426-97439, 2019. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2928487
7. Zuo, J., et al. "Pipeline leak detection technology based on distributed optical fiber acoustic sensing system," IEEE Access, Vol. 8, 30789-30796, 2020. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2973229
8. Ekes, C. and B. Neducza, "Pipe condition assessments using pipe penetrating radar," 14th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), 2012.
9. Awwad, A., et al. "Communication network for ultrasonic acoustic water leakage detectors," IEEE Access, Vol. 8, 29954-29964, 2020. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2972648
10. Wang, J., et al. "Novel negative pressure wave-based pipeline leak detection system using fiber bragg grating-based pressure sensors," Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 35, No. 16, 3366-3373, 2017. doi:10.1109/JLT.2016.2615468
11. Akib, A. B. M., N. B. Saad, and V. Asirvadam, "Pressure point analysis for early detection system," IEEE 7th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and Its Applications, 2011.
12. Stouffs, P. and M. Giot, "Pipeline leak detection based on mass balance: Importance of the packing term," Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 6, No. 5, 307-312, 1993. doi:10.1016/S0950-4230(05)80004-X
13. Zarifi, M. H., et al. "Microwave ring resonator-based non-contact interface sensor for oil sands applications," Sensors and Actuators B, Vol. 224, 632-639, 2016. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2015.10.061
14. Karaaslan, M. and M. Bakir, "Chiral metamaterial based multifunctional sensor applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 149, 55-67, 2014. doi:10.2528/PIER14070111
15. Boyarskii, D. A., V. V. Tikhonov, and N. Yu. Komarova, "Model of dielectric constant of bound water in soil for applications of microwave remote sensing," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 35, 251-269, 2002. doi:10.2528/PIER01042403
16. Kilpijarvi, J., N. Halonen, Ja. Juuti, and J. Hannu, "Microfluidic microwave sensor for detecting saline in biological range," Sensors, Vol. 19, 819, 2019. doi:10.3390/s19040819
17. Mirza, A. F., C. H. See, I. M. Danjuma, et al. "An active microwave sensor for near field imaging," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 17, No. 9, 2749-2757, 2017. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2017.2673961
18. Baghbani, R., M. A. Rad, and A. Pourziad, "Microwave sensor for non-invasive glucose measurements design and implementation of a novel linear," IET Wireless Sensor System, Vol. 5, No. 2, 51-57, 2015. doi:10.1049/iet-wss.2013.0099
19. Chen, T., S. Li, and H. Sun, "Metamaterials application in sensing," Sensors, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2742-2765, 2012. doi:10.3390/s120302742
20. Huang, M. and J. Yang, "Microwave sensor using metamaterials," Wave Propagation, 13-36, In Tech, 2011.
21. Ziolkowski, R. W. and N. Engheta, "Introduction, history, and selected topics in fundamental theories of metamaterials," Metamaterials Physics and Engineering Explorations, IEEE Press, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
22. Holloway, C. L., E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, et al. "An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 54, No. 2, 10-35, 2012. doi:10.1109/MAP.2012.6230714
23. Chowdhury, D. R., A. K. Azad, W. Zhang, and R. Singh, "Near field coupling in passive and active terahertz metamaterial devices," IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 6, 783-790, 2013. doi:10.1109/TTHZ.2013.2285569
24. Luk'yanchuk, B., N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, et al. "The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials," Nature Materials, Vol. 9, 707-715, 2010. doi:10.1038/nmat2810
25. Albishi, A. and O. M. Ramahi, "Detection of surface and subsurface cracks in metallic and non- metallic materials using a complementary split-ring resonator," Sensors, Vol. 14, No. 10, 19354-19370, 2014. doi:10.3390/s141019354
26. Yun, T. and S. Lim, "High-Q and miniaturized complementary split ring resonator-loaded substrate integrated waveguide microwave sensor for crack detection in metallic materials," Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 214, 25-30, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2014.04.006
27. Albishi, A. and O. M. Ramahi, "Microwaves-based high sensitivity sensors for crack detection in metallic materials," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 65, No. 5, 1864-1872, 2017. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2017.2673823
28. Rajni, A. K. and A. Marwaha, "Complementary split ring resonator based sensor for crack detection," International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1012-1017, 2015.
29. Albishi, A. M., M. S. Boybay, and O. M. Ramahi, "Complementary split-ring resonator for crack detection in metallic surfaces," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 22, No. 6, 330-332, 2012. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2012.2197384
30. Pendry, J. B., A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 47, No. 11, 2075-2084, 1999. doi:10.1109/22.798002
31. Falcone, F., T. Lopetegi, J. D. Baena, et al. "Effective negative-stopband microstrip lines based on complementary split ring resonators," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 14, No. 6, 280-282, 2004. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2004.828029
32. Falcone, F., T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, et al. "Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 93, 197401, 2004. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.197401
33. Katsarakis, N., T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, et al. "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 84, No. 15, 2943-2945, 2004. doi:10.1063/1.1695439
34. Bilotti, F., A. Toscano, and L. Vegni, "Design of spiral and multiple split-ring resonators for the realization of miniaturized metamaterial samples," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 8, 2258-2267, 2007. doi:10.1109/TAP.2007.901950
35. Naqui, J., "Fundamentals of planar metamaterials and subwavelength resonators," Symmetry Properties in Transmission Lines Loaded with Electrically Small Resonators, Springer Theses book series, 2016.
36. Ansari, M. A. H., A. K. Jha, and M. J. Akhtar, "Design and application of the CSRR-based planar sensor for noninvasive measurement of complex permittivity," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 15, No. 12, 7181-7189, 2015. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2015.2469683
37. Bonache, J., M. Gil, I. Gil, et al. "On the electrical characteristics of complementary metamaterial resonators," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 16, No. 10, 543-545, 2006. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2006.882400
38. Chuma, E. L., et al. "Microwave sensor for liquid dielectric characterization based on metamaterial complementary split ring resonator," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 18, No. 24, 9978-9983, 2018. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2018.2872859
39. Salim, A. and S. Lim, "Complementary split-ring resonator-loaded microfluidic ethanol chemical sensor," Sensors, Vol. 16, 1802, 2016. doi:10.3390/s16111802
40. Chakyar, S. P., S. K. Simon, C. Bindu, J. Andrews, and V. P. Joseph, "Complex permittivity measurement using metamaterial split ring resonators," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 121, 054101-1, 2017.