To aid with the design, evaluation, and optimisation of charged particle instrumentation, computer modelling is often used. It is therefore of interest to obtain accurate predictions for trajectories of charged species with the help of simulation. Particularly for solenoids and coils, which are often used for guiding, deflecting or focusing particle beams, knowledge of the magnetic field is required, especially in the fringing field regions. A novel model, which is based on a direct-line-of-action force between interacting charges, is described in this paper which accurately predicts the deflection of an electron beam trajectory traversing through a coil and the fringe field region. The model is further compared with a standard field model and a commercially available software package. Additionally, a relatively straightforward experiment has been designed and implemented to verify the simulation results, where it is found that the presented direct-action model is equally as accurate as field-based simulations compared with the experimental results. Furthermore, the magnetic field of a solenoid is visualised and analysed in terms of its radial, axial, and total field strength and compared to a force map obtained from the direct-interaction model. This representation allows for further comparison of the field and force interaction models and it is found that they are qualitatively the same.
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