A hybrid algorithm based on the invasive weed optimization (IWO) and the convex optimization (CVX) is proposed for minimizing the peak sidelobe level (PSLL) of linear array with focused and/or shaped beam pattern. In this approach, IWO is adopted to produce the array (described by element positions), and CVX is used to determine the excitations for each produced array. Then the corresponding PSLL acts as the fitness function of IWO to find the optimal positions which lead to the minimum PSLL. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed hybrid approach. Compared with other techniques, a lower PSLL can be achieved with a fixed main beam width or with a shaped main beam using this hybrid algorithm. Moreover, this method can easily cope with some constraints on the aperture, such as the minimum element spacing and the total number of elements.
1. Steinberg, B. D., Principles of Aperture and Array System Design: Including Random and Adaptive Arrays, Wiley, New York, 1976.
2. Kumar, B. P. and G. Branner, "Design of unequally spaced arrays for performance improvement," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 47, No. 3, 511-523, Mar. 1999. doi:10.1109/8.768787
3. Bucci, O. M., T. Isernia, and A. F. Morabito, "An effective deterministic procedure for the synthesis of shaped beams by means of uniform-amplitude linear sparse arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 61, No. 1, 169-175, Jan. 2013. doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2219844
4. Angeletti, P. and G. Toso, "Array antennas with jointly optimized elements positions and dimensions part I: Linear arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 62, No. 4, 1619-1626, Apr. 2014. doi:10.1109/TAP.2013.2281602
5. Ishimaru, A., "Unequally spaced arrays based on the poisson sum formula," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 62, No. 4, 1549-1554, Apr. 2014. doi:10.1109/TAP.2013.2283255
6. Chen, K., Z. He, and C. Han, "A modied real GA for the sparse linear array synthesis with multiple constraints," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 54, No. 7, 2169-2173, Jul. 2006. doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.877211
7. Zhang, F., W. Jia, and M. Yao, "Linear aperiodic array synthesis using differential evolution algorithm," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 12, 797-800, 2013. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2270930
8. Lin, Z., W. Jia, M. Yao, and L. Hao, "Synthesis of sparse linear arrays using vector mapping and simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 11, 220-223, 2012.
9. Karimkashi, S. and A. A. Kishk, "Invasive weed optimization and its features in electromagnetics," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 58, No. 4, 1269-1278, Apr. 2010. doi:10.1109/TAP.2010.2041163
10. Cen, L., Z. L. Yu, W. Ser, and W. Cen, "Linear aperiodic array synthesis using an improved genetic algorithm," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 2, 895-902, Feb. 2012. doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2173111
11. Zhang, S., S.-X. Gong, Y. Guan, P.-F. Zhang, and Q. Gong, "A novel IGA-EDSPSO hybrid algorithm for the synthesis of sparse arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 89, 121-134, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER08120806
12. Prisco, G. and M. D'Urso, "Maximally sparse arrays via sequential convex optimizations," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 11, 192-195, 2012. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2012.2186626
13. Zhao, X., Q. Yang, and Y. Zhang, "Compressed sensing approach for pattern synthesis of maximally sparse non-uniform linear array," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 8, 301-307, 2014. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2013.0492
14. Isernia, T., O. M. Bucci, and N. Fiorentino, "Shaped beam antenna synthesis problems: Feasibility criteria and new strategies," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 12, No. 1, 103-138, 1998. doi:10.1163/156939398X00098
15. Akdagli, A. and K. Guney, "Touring ant colony optimization algorithm for shaped-beam pattern synthesis of linear antenna arrays," Electromagnetics, Vol. 26, 615-628, 2006. doi:10.1080/02726340600978349
16. Liu, Y., Q. H. Liu, and Z. Nie, "Reducing the number of elements in the synthesis of shaped-beam patterns by the forward-backward matrix pencil method," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 58, No. 2, 604-608, Feb. 2010. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2037709