In this paper, a highly directive small-cell waveguide antenna array for point to point wireless communication in E-band radio frequency systems is presented. The antenna array is designed and dedicated for the paired bandwidths 71-76 and 81-86 GHz. It is composed of 32 x 32 horn elements with a total surface of ~100 x 100 mm2 to achieve a directivity ≥38 dBi, narrow beam (~2°) and low-level sidelobe ≤-26 dB. A compact stepped horn antenna element (SHE) (6.6 mm) is designed. It is 25% smaller than a standard horn element (in the same band) keeping the same aperture surface (3.4 x 3.4 mm2). Layer-by-layer micromachining process is employed for the fabrication. A compact feeding network (25 mm) is realized using ridged waveguide technique with a cut-off frequency of 55 GHz, much lower than standard WG one in the same band. A bow-tie multi-section waveguide polarizer rotator (±90°) is optimized and associated with the WG transitions to re-phase the fields applied to SHE elements. Electric discharge machining (EDM) process was used to manufacture a 4×4 sub-array prototype including the entire WG power-feed network. The antenna is characterized in an anechoic chamber, and experimental results are compared to 3-D electromagnetic simulations with good agreements over the two bands.
1. Dyadyuk, V., Y. J. Guo, and J. D. Bunton, "Multi-gigabit wireless communication technology in the E-band," 1st International Conference on Wireless Communication, Vehicular Technology, Information Theory and Aerospace & Electronics Systems Technology, Wireless VITAE 2009, 2009.
2. Niu, Y., et al., "A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5G: opportunities and challenges," Wireless Networks, Vol. 21, No. 8, 2657-2676, 2015. doi:10.1007/s11276-015-0942-z
3. Liu, J., et al., "A slot array antenna with single-layered corporate-feed based on ridge gap waveguide in the 60 GHz band," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 67, No. 3, 1650-1658, 2018. doi:10.1109/TAP.2018.2888730
4. Vosoogh, A., P.-S. Kildal, and V. Vassilev, "Wideband and high-gain corporate-fed gap waveguide slot array antenna with ETSI class II Radiation pattern in V-band," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 65, No. 4, 1823-1831, 2016. doi:10.1109/TAP.2016.2634282
5. Liu, J., et al., "Hollow waveguide 32×32-slot array antenna covering 71–86 GHz band by the technology of a polyetherimide fabrication," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 17, No. 9, 1635-1638, 2018. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2018.2859582
6. Gallee, F., G. Landrac, and M. M. Ney, "Artificial lens for third-generation automotive radar antenna at millimetre-wave frequencies," IEE Proceedings-Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 150, No. 6, 470-476, 2003. doi:10.1049/ip-map:20030745
7. Vosoogh, A., et al., "Compact integrated full-duplex gap waveguide-based radio front end for multi-Gbit/s point-to-point backhaul links at E-band," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 67, No. 9, 3783-3797, 2019. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2019.2919539
8. Wang, L., et al., "Wideband and dual-band high-gain substrate integrated antenna array for E-band multi-gigahertz capacity wireless communication systems," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 9, 4602-4611, 2014. doi:10.1109/TAP.2014.2334357
9. Mehrpouyan, H., et al., "Improving bandwidth efficiency in E-band communication systems," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 52, No. 3, 121-128, 2014. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2014.6766096
11. Yang, J., I. Papageorgiou, A. Derneryd, and L. Manholm, "An E-band cylindrical reflector antenna for wireless communication systems," 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden, Apr. 8–12, 2013.
12. Artemenko, A., A. Mozharovskiy, A. Maltsev, R. Maslennikov, A. Sevastyanov, and V. Ssorin, "Experimental characterization of E-band two-dimensional electronically beam-steerable integrated lens antennas," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, 1188-1191, 2013. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2282212
13. Al-Nuaimi, M., K. Taher, and W. Hong, "Discrete dielectric reflectarray and lens for E-band with different feed," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 13, 947-950, 2014. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2014.2313569
14. Al-Nuaimi, Mu. K. T., W. Hong, and Y. Zhang, "Design of high-directivity compact-size conical horn lens antenna," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 13, 467-470, 2014. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2297519
15. Pan, B., et al., "A 60-GHz CPW-fed high-gain and broadband integrated horn antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 4, 1050-1056, 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2015815
16. Ghassemi, N. and K. Wu, "Planar high-gain dielectric-loaded antipodal linearly tapered slot antenna for E- and W-Band gigabyte point-to-point wireless services," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 4, 1747-1755, 2013. doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2232269
17. Ghassemi, N. and K. Wu, "High-efficient patch antenna array for E-band gigabyte point-to-point wireless services," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 11, 1261-1264, 2012. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2012.2224087
18. Ghassemi, N. and K. Wu, "Millimeter-wave integrated pyramidal horn antenna made of multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) process," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 9, 4432-4435, 2012. doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2207050
19. Deslandes, D. and K. Wu, "Integrated microstrip and rectangular waveguide in planar form," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 11, No. 2, 68-70, 2001. doi:10.1109/7260.914305
20. Encinar, J. and J. Rebollar, "A hybrid technique for analyzing corrugated and noncorrugated rectangular horns," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 34, No. 8, 961-968, 1986. doi:10.1109/TAP.1986.1143930
21. Zhang, M., J. Hirokawa, and M. Ando, "An E-band partially corporate feed uniform slot array with laminated quasi double-layer waveguide and virtual PMC terminations," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 5, 1521-1527, 2011. doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2122301
22. Gueye, M. B., H. H. Ouslimani, S. N. Burokur, A. Priou, Y. Letestu, and A. Le Bayon, "Antenna array for point-to-point communication in E-band frequency range," IEEE International Symposium Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI), 2077-2079, Jul. 2011.
23. FanHong, M., H. H. Ouslimani, and M. B. Gueye, Electronics Letters, Vol. 51, No. 22, 1730-1732, 2015. doi:10.1049/el.2015.2441
24. Ouslimani, H. H. and F. Meng, "Design of large-band highly directive antenna in the millimeter waves range at 80 GHz," 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and URSI Radio Science Meeting, 1097-1098, IEEE, 2019. doi:10.1109/APUSNCURSINRSM.2019.8889366
25. Chacko, B., G. Augustin, and T. A. Denidni, "FPC antennas: C-band point-to-point communication systems," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 58, No. 1, 56-64, 2016. doi:10.1109/MAP.2015.2501240
26. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2016.
27. ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute), European Standard EN 302 217-4-2, Fixed radio systems; Characteristics and requirements for point-to-point equipment and antennas; Part 4-2: Antennas; Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements of article 3.2 of R&TTE directive, 2–35, 2010, http://www.etsi.org and https://www.google.com/search?hl=fr&q=Final+draft+ETSI+EN+302+217-4-2+V1.4.1+(2008-11).
28. HPCPE-80, High performance parabolic reflector antenna, single-polarized, 71–86 GHz, https://www.radiowaves.com/en/product/hpcpe-80 and https://www.radiowaves.com/en/product/hplp2-80. 2020.
29. Migliaccio, C., et al., "Fresnel reflector antennas formm-Wave helicopter obstacle detection radar," IEEE 2006 First European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, 1-5, 2006.
30. Gomez, J., et al., "Metal-only Fresnel zone plate antenna for millimetre-wave frequency bands," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 8, No. 6, 445-450, 2014. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2013.0196
31. Wriedt, T., et al., "Rigorous hybrid field theoretic design of stepped rectangular waveguide mode converters including the horn transitions into half-space," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 37, No. 6, 780-790, 1989. doi:10.1109/8.29365
32. Jorge, A. R.-C., R. M.-G. Jose, and M. R. Jesus, "Multi-section bow-tie steps for full-band waveguide polarization rotation," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 20, No. 7, 375-377, Jul. 2010.
33. Chen, L., A. Arsenovic, J. R. Stanec, T. J. Reck, A. W. Lichtenberger, R. M. Weikle, II, and N. S. Barker, "A micromachined terahertz waveguide 90 twist," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 21, No. 5, 234-236, May 2011. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2011.2127467
34. Kirilenko, A., D. Y. Kulik, and L. A. Rud, "Compact 90 twist formed by a double-corner-cut square waveguide section," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 56, No. 7, 1633-1637, Jul. 2008. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2008.925570
35. Kirilenko, A., D. Y. Kulik, and L. A. Rud, "Compact broadband 90 twist based on square waveguide section with two stepped corner ridges," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 51, No. 3, 851-854, Mar. 2009. doi:10.1002/mop.24161
36. Beis, K. and U. Rosenberg, Waveguide Twist, U.S. Patent 6 879 221 B2, Apr. 12, 2005.
38. Zhang, B., et al., "Investigation on 3-D-printing technologies for millimeter-wave and terahertz applications," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 105, No. 4, 723-736, 2017. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2016.2639520
39. Hirtenfelder, F., Effective antenna simulations using CST microwave studio R, Apr. 2007, DOI: 10.1109/INICA.2007.4353972, Source: IEEE Xplore https://www.3ds.com/fr.
42. Recioui, A., "Sidelobe level reduction in linear array pattern synthesis using particle swarm optimization," Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, Vol. 153, No. 2, 497-512, 2012. doi:10.1007/s10957-011-9953-9
43. Hodjat, F. and S. et Hovanessian, "Nonuniformly spaced linear and planar array antennas for sidelobe reduction," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 26, No. 2, 198-204, 1978. doi:10.1109/TAP.1978.1141812
44. Oraizi, H. and M. Fallahpour, "Nonuniformly spaced linear array design for the specified beamwidth/sidelobe level or specified directivity/sidelobe level with coupling consideration," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 4, 185-209, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERM08072302