The traditional electromagnetic wave wireless communication in the underground environment has the problem of unstable channel path loss, large antenna size, high path loss, etc. To address these issues, the channel models of magnetic induction communication and magnetic induction waveguide communication based on quasi-static field coupling are proposed, and the characteristics of magnetic field strength, path loss, bandwidth, and channel capacity are analyzed in detail. The results show that the magnetic induction communication system channel is stable, compared with the ordinary induction communication, and the path loss of magnetic induction waveguide communication is reduced a lot, even in the case of high noise and transmission distance increased by more than 20 times. But the bandwidths of the two ways are small and similar. The path loss and bandwidth decide the system capacity, and system capacity is also affected by the number of turns, working frequency, coil resistance, and size.
Bao Heng Liu,
"Research on the Model and Characteristics of Underground Magnetic Induction Communication Channel," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M,
Vol. 101, 89-100, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERM21010801
1. Akyildiz, I. F. and E. P. Stuntebeck, "Wireless underground sensor networks: Research challenges," Ad Hoc Netw., Vol. 4, No. 6, 669-686, 2006. doi:10.1016/j.adhoc.2006.04.003
2. Shi, W. J., Y. J. Sun, and S. Li, "Theory and Key technology of wireless magnetic induction sensor network in challenging environment," Industry and Mine Automation, Vol. 42, No. 6, 20-25, 2016.
3. Akyildiz, I. F. and E. P. Stuntebeck, "Underground wireless communication using magnetic induction," IEEE ICC, 1-5, 2009.
4. Jack, N. and K. Shenai, "Magnetic induction ic for wireless communication in RF-impenetrable media," IEEE WMED, Vol. 13, No. 4, 47-48, 2007.
5. Sun, Z. and I. F. Akyildiz, "Optimal deployment for magnetic induction-based wireless networks in challenged environments," IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., Vol. 12, No. 3, 996-1005, 2013. doi:10.1109/TWC.2013.011713.111896
7. Kalinin, V. A., K. H. Ringhofer, and L. Solymar, "Magneto-inductive waves in one, two, three dimensions," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 92, No. 10, 6525-6261, 2002.
8. Sun, Z. and I. F. Akyildiz, "Underground wireless communication using magnetic induction," IEEE ICC, 1-5, Dresden, Germany, June 2009.
9. Sun, Z. and I. F. Akyildiz, "Magnetic induction communications for wireless underground sensor networks," IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag., Vol. 58, No. 7, 2426-2435, 2010. doi:10.1109/TAP.2010.2048858
10. Agbinya, J. I. and M. Masihpour, "Magnetic induction channel models and link budgets: A comparison between two Agbinya-Masihpour models," Third International Conference on Communications and Electronics (ICCE), 400-405, 2010.
11. Masihpour, M. and J. I. Agbinya, "Cooperative relay in near field magnetic induction: A new technology for embedded medical communication systems," The Fifth International Conferenceon Broadband and Biomedical Communications, 1-6, 2010.
12. Johnson, I. A. and M. Masihpour, "Power equations and capacity performance of magnetic induction communication systems," IB2Com'10 Conference, 1-6, Malaga, Spain, 2010.
13. Agbinya, J. I., "A magneto-inductive link budget for wireless power transfer and inductive communication systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 37, 15-28, 2013. doi:10.2528/PIERC12120511
14. Wait, J. R., "Subsurface electromagnetic fields of a circular loop of currentlocated above ground," IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag., Vol. 20, No. 4, 520-522, 1972. doi:10.1109/TAP.1972.1140232
15. Yan, L. Y., J. A. Waynert, and C. Sunderman, "Measurements and modeling of through-the-earth communications for coal mines," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 49, No. 5, 1979-1983, 2013. doi:10.1109/TIA.2013.2260116
16. Li, L., M. C. Vuran, and I. F. Akyildiz, "Characteristics of underground channel for wireless underground sensor networks," Med-Hoc-Net'07, 92-99, Corfu, Greece, June 2007.
17. Sun, Z. and I. F. Akyildiz, "On capacity of magnetic induction-based wireless underground sensor networks," 2012 Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM, 370-378, Orlando, USA, 2012.