A frequency continuous reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna with operation band covering S-band and C-band is introduced. The antenna consists of a central rectangular patch and four parasitic patches with a symmetrical structure, connected by four varactor diodes in the middle position of the edge of each patch. With help of HFSS microwave studio simulation, results have shown that, by altering the bias voltage on varactor diodes, the operated frequencies vary continuously within a wide range from 3.29 to 4.01 GHz and 5.35 to 7.00 GHz, which cover S-band and C-band. Further measurement, which verifies the simulation by reasonable agreement, has been carried out. Besides, this frequency reconfigurable antenna maintains broadside radiation and stable radiation pattern. Specifically, the gain is basically maintained at around 4.5 dBi with the working frequency increasing from 3.60 to 7.00 GHz. Compared with other frequency-reconfigurable antennas available in previous literature, the proposed antenna has advantages of a wide frequency tuning range, high frequency selectivity, simple and stable structure, low cost, and miniaturization, which make it a promising candidate as cognitive radio and future wireless communication systems.
1. Sboui, L., Z. Rezki, A. Sultan, and M. S. Alouini, "A new relation between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency in wireless communications systems," IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 26, No. 3, 168-174, 2019. doi:10.1109/MWC.2019.1800161
2. Zhou, L., J. Rodrigues, H. Wang, M. G. Martini, and V. Leung, "5G multimedia communications: Theory, technology, and application," IEEE Multimedia, Vol. 26, No. 1, 8-9, 2019. doi:10.1109/MMUL.2018.2875256
3. Balasubramaniam, S., S. A. Wirdatmadja, M. T. Barros, Y. Koucheryavy, and J. M. Jornet, "Wireless communications for optogenetics-based brain stimulation: Present technology and future challenges," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 56, No. 7, 218-224, 2018. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2018.1700917
4. Chattha, H. T., M. Hanif, X. Yang, I. E. Rana, and Q. H. Abbasi, "Frequency reconfigurable patch antenna for 4G LTE applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 69, 1-13, 2018. doi:10.2528/PIERM18022101
5. Chen, Y., B. Ai, Y. Niu, R. He, and Z. Han, "Resource allocation for device-to-device communications in multi-cell multi-band heterogeneous cellular networks," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 68, No. 5, 4760-4773, 2019. doi:10.1109/TVT.2019.2903858
6. Bjorn, T., T. Arno, F. Jonas, C. Davide, T. R. Christer, V. G¨unter, M. Luc, and J. Wout, "Radio frequency electromagnetic field compliance assessment of multi-band and MIMO equipped radio base stations," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 35, No. 4, 296-308, 2014. doi:10.1002/bem.21843
7. Tamagnone, M., J. S. G. Diaz, J. R. Mosig, and J. Perruisseaucarrier, "Reconfigurable THz plasmonic antenna concept using a graphene stack," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, No. 21, 836-842, 2012. doi:10.1063/1.4767338
8. Piazza, D. and K. R. Dandekar, "Reconfigurable antenna solution for MIMO-OFDM systems," Electronics Letters, Vol. 42, No. 8, 446, 2006. doi:10.1049/el:20060221
9. Senanayake, R., P. J. Smith, P. A. Martin, and J. S. Evans, "Performance analysis of reconfigurable antenna arrays," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 65, No. 6, 2726-2739, 2017. doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2017.2682081
10. Tian, W., D. Wu, Q. Chao, Z. Chen, and Y. Wang, "Application of genetic algorithm in M × N reconfigurable antenna array based on RF MEMS switches," Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 32, No. 30, 585-702, 2018. doi:10.1142/S0217984918503657
11. Zhou, Q. F., H. An, P. Min, F. Qu, and L. Fan, "On the mode switching of reconfigurable-antennabased blind interference alignment," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66, No. 8, 6958-6968, 2017. doi:10.1109/TVT.2017.2663200
12. Yadav, A., M. Tewari, and R. P. Yadav, "Pixel shape ground inspired frequency reconfigurable antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 89, 75-85, 2019. doi:10.2528/PIERC18082102
13. Chaouche, Y. B., F. Bouttout, M. Nedil, I. Messaoudene, and I. Benmabrouk, "A frequency reconfigurable U-shaped antenna for dual-band WIMAX/WLAN systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 87, 63-71, 2018. doi:10.2528/PIERC18071004
14. George, R., C. R. S. Kumar, S. Gangal, and M. Joshi, "Frequency reconfigurable pixel antenna with PIN diodes," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 86, 59-65, 2019. doi:10.2528/PIERL19051803
15. Shirazi, M., J. Huang, T. Li, and G. Xun, "A switchable-frequency slot-ring antenna element for designing a reconfigurable array," IEEE Antennas & Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 17, No. 2, 229-233, 2017. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2017.2781463
16. Bharathi, A., M. Lakshminarayana, and P. V. D. S. Rao, "A quad-polarization and frequency reconfigurable square ring slot loaded microstrip patch antenna for WLAN applications," AEU — International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 78, 15-23, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2017.05.015
17. Nafde, Y. and R. Pande, "Design and analysis of resistive series RF MEMS switches based fractal U-slot reconfigurable antenna," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 97, No. 12, 1-16, 2017.
18. Nguyen-Trong, N., L. Hall, and C. Fumeaux, "A frequency- and polarization-reconfigurable stubloaded microstrip patch antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 63, No. 11, 5235-5240, 2015. doi:10.1109/TAP.2015.2477846
19. Ullah, S., S. A. A. Shah, M. F. Khan, S. Ullah, and J. A. Flint, "Design of a multi-band frequency reconfigurable planar monopole antenna using truncated ground plane for Wi-Fi, WLAN and WiMAX applications," ICOSST 2014, 2014.
20. Tong, L., H. Zhai, W. Xin, L. Long, and C. Liang, "Frequency-reconfigurable bow-tie antenna for bluetooth, WiMAX, and WLAN applications," IEEE Antennas & Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 14, 171-174, 2015.
21. Haraz, O. M., S. A. Alshebeili, and A. R. Sebak, "Low-cost high gain printed log-periodic dipole array antenna with dielectric lenses for V-band applications," Microwaves Antennas & Propagation, IET, Vol. 9, No. 6, 541-552, 2015. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2014.0319
22. Cai, Y. M., S. Gao, Y. Yin, W. Li, and Q. Luo, "Compact-size low-profile wideband circularly polarized omnidirectional patch antenna with reconfigurable polarizations," IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 64, No. 5, 2016-2021, 2016. doi:10.1109/TAP.2016.2535502
23. Sato, S., S. Saito, and Y. Kimura, "A frequency tunable ring microstrip antenna fed by an Lprobe with varactor diodes," 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, 2015.
24. Majid, H. A., M. K. A. Rahim, M. R. Hamid, N. A. Murad, and M. F. Ismail, "Frequencyreconfigurable microstrip patch-slot antenna," IEEE Antennas & Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, No. 1921, 218-220, 2013. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2245293
25. Cai, Y., K. Li, Y. Yin, S. Gao, W. Hu, and L. Zhao, "A low-profile frequency reconfigurable grid-slotted patch antenna," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 36305-36312, 2018. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2850926
26. Tateno, H., S. Saito, and Y. Kimura, "A frequency-tunable varactor-loaded single-layer ring microstrip antenna with a bias circuit on the backside of the ground plane," 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, 2016.