Vol. 101

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

BER Analysis in Non-Homogeneous Fading Environments with Impulsive Noise

By Umer Ashraf and Ghulam Rasool Begh
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 101, 197-206, 2021


In this paper, using binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation, analytical expressions of bit-error-rate (BER) for various non-homogeneous fading environments (α-μ, η-μ and κ-μ) subjected to SαS noise are obtained. The derived results are expressed in terms of Meijer's G-function and Gamma function. These expressions are used to study the performance of other prominent fading models (like Nakagami-m, Rayleigh, Rician, and Hoyt) available in the technical literature. Further, it is shown that the effect of the impulsive index (α) over BER is much pronounced compared to the amount of fading (AF). Numerical results are provided for different impulsive settings. The derived results corroborate with simulations.


Umer Ashraf and Ghulam Rasool Begh, "BER Analysis in Non-Homogeneous Fading Environments with Impulsive Noise," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 101, 197-206, 2021.


    1. Simon, M. K. and M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communication over Fading Channels, Vol. 95, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

    2. Proakis, J. G. and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, Vol. 4, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001.

    3. Savischenko, N. V., Special Integral Functions Used in Wireless Communications Theory, World Scientific, 2014.

    4. Niranjayan, S. and N. C. Beaulieu, "Analysis of wireless communication systems in the presence of non-Gaussian impulsive noise and Gaussian noise," 2010 IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference, 1-6, IEEE, 2010.

    5. Sharma, S., V. Bhatia, and A. K. Mishra, "Wireless consumer electronic devices: The effects of impulsive radio-frequency interference," IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 4, 56-61, 2019.

    6. Laguna-Sanchez, G. and M. Lopez-Guerrero, "On the use of alpha-stable distributions in noise modeling for PLC," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1863-1870, 2015.

    7. Banerjee, S. and M. Agrawal, "Underwater acoustic communication in the presence of heavy-tailed impulsive noise with bi-parameter cauchy-gaussian mixture model," 2013 Ocean Electronics (SYMPOL), 1-7, IEEE, 2013.

    8. Shongwe, T., A. J. H. Vinck, and H. C. Ferreira, "A study on impulse noise and its models," SAIEE Africa Research Journal, Vol. 106, No. 3, 119-131, 2015.

    9. Samoradnitsky, G., Stable Non-Gaussian Random Processes: Stochastic Models with Infinite Variance, Routledge, 2017.

    10. Nolan, J. P., "Numerical calculation of stable densities and distribution functions," Communications in Statistics. Stochastic Models, Vol. 13, No. 4, 759-774, 1997.

    11. Ashraf, U. and G. R. Begh, "Performance evaluation of Nakagami-m fading with impulsive noise," IET Communications, 2021, DOI: 10.1049/cmu2.12065.

    12. Chen, Y., F. Xu, and J. Chen, "Polynomial-approximation-based locally optimum detector for signals with symmetric alpha stable noise," IET Communications, Vol. 8, No. 16, 2952-2960, 2014.

    13. Chitre, M. A., J. R. Potter, and S. Ong, "Optimal and near-optimal signal detection in snapping shrimp dominated ambient noise," IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 2, 497-503, 2006.

    14. Sun, W., X. Yuan, J. Wang, Q. Li, L. Chen, and D. Mu, "End-to-end data delivery reliability model for estimating and optimizing the link quality of industrial WSNs," IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1127-1137, 2018.

    15. Rajan, A. and C. Tepedelenlioglu, "Diversity combining over Rayleigh fading channels with symmetric alpha-stable noise," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 9, No. 9, 2968-2976, 2010.

    16. Silva, H. S., W. J. Queiroz, D. B. Almeida, F. Madeiro, and M. S. Alencar, "Bit error probability of the M-QAM scheme subject to multilevel double gated additive white Gaussian noise and η-μ, κ-μ, or α-μ fading," Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, Vol. 30, No. 12, e3682, 2019.

    17. Yilmaz, F. and M.-S. Alouini, "On the bit-error rate of binary phase shift keying over additive white generalized Laplacian noise (AWGLN) channels," 2018 26th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU), 1-4, IEEE, 2018.

    18. Almehmadi, F. S. and O. S. Badarneh, "On the error rate of coherent binary modulation techniques in mobile communication systems over generalized fading channels impaired by generalized Gaussian noise," AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 82, 14-19, 2017.

    19. Miyamoto, S., M. Katayama, and N. Morinaga, "Performance analysis of QAM systems under class A impulsive noise environment," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 37, No. 2, 260-267, 1995.

    20. Tepedelenlioglu, C. and P. Gao, "Performance of diversity reception over fading channels with impulsive noise," 2004 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Vol. 4, iv-iv, IEEE, 2004.

    21. Weng, J. F. and S. H. Leung, "On the performance of DPSK in rician fading channels with class A noise," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 49, No. 5, 1934-1949, 2000.

    22. Queiroz, W. J., F. Madeiro, W. T. Lopes, and M. S. Alencar, "On the performance of M-QAM for Nakagami channels subject to gated noise," Telecommunication Systems, Vol. 68, No. 1, 1-10, 2018.

    23. Silva, H. S., M. S. Alencar, W. J. Queiroz, D. B. Almeida, and F. Madeiro, "Bit error probability of the M-QAM scheme under η-μ fading and impulsive noise in a communication system using spatial diversity," International Journal of Communication Systems, Vol. 32, No. 11, e3959, 2019.

    24. Mei, Z., M. Johnston, S. Le Goff, and L. Chen, "Error probability analysis of M-QAM on Rayleigh fading channels with impulsive noise," 2016 IEEE 17th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), 1-5, IEEE, 2016.

    25. Mei, Z., M. Johnston, S. Le Goff, and L. Chen, "Performance analysis of LDPC-coded diversity combining on rayleigh fading channels with impulsive noise," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 65, No. 6, 2345-2356, 2017.

    26. Ndo, G., F. Labeau, and M. Kassouf, "A Markov-Middleton model for bursty impulsive noise: Modeling and receiver design," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2317-2325, 2013.

    27. Silva, H. S., M. S. de Alencar, W. J. de Queiroz, R. de A Coelho, and F. Madeiro, "Bit error probability of M-QAM under impulsive noise and fading modeled by using markov chains," Radioengineering, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1183-1190, 2018.

    28. Gonzalez, J. G., J. L. Paredes, and G. R. Arce, "Zero-order statistics: A mathematical framework for the processing and characterization of very impulsive signals," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 54, No. 10, 3839-3851, 2006.

    29. Gradshteyn, I. S. and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series and Products, 7th Ed., Academic, San. Diego, CA, USA, 2007.

    30. Karagiannidis, G. K. and A. S. Lioumpas, "An improved approximation for the Gaussian Q-function," IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 11, No. 8, 644-646, 2007.

    31. Yang, F. and X. Zhang, "Ber analysis for digital modulation schemes under symmetric alpha-stable noise," 2014 IEEE Military Communications Conference, 350-355, IEEE, 2014.

    32. Yacoub, M. D., "The α-μ distribution: A general fading distribution," The 13th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Vol. 2, 629-633, IEEE, 2002.

    33. Alvi, S. H., S. Wyne, and D. B. da Costa, "Performance analysis of dual-hop AF relaying over α-μ fading channels," AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 108, 221-225, 2019.

    34. Yacoub, M. D., "The κ-μ distribution and the η-μ distribution," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 49, No. 1, 68-81, 2007.

    35. Badarneh, O. S., T. Aldalgamouni, and M. Aloqlah, "Outage probability analysis of multi-hop relayed wireless networks over η-μ fading channels," AEU-International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 67, No. 10, 833-838, 2013.

    36. Prudnikov, Y. A. P. and O. I. Marichev, Integrals, and series: More special functions, Vol. 3, Gordon and Breach Sci. Publ., New York, NY, USA, 2007.

    37. Ermolova, N. Y., "Moment generating functions of the generalized η-μ and κ-μ distributions and their applications to performance evaluations of communication systems," IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 12, No. 7, 502-504, 2008.

    38. Jameson, G. J. O., "Beyond the ratio test," The Mathematical Gazette, Vol. 555, No. 471-484, 102, 2018.