A hybrid electromagnetic-network analysis of the antennas-channel multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication subsystem is presented. The analysis is based on the antenna effective and realized effective length matrices, which relate in a compact mathematical way the radiated and received electric field intensities to the network characteristics of actual and coupled transmitting (Tx) and receiving (Rx) multi-element antenna (MEA) systems. The effective length matrices are calculated via the active power gain and phase antenna patterns obtained by means of any full wave computational electromagnetics (CEM) field solver. It is shown that the realized effective length matrix is suitable for the S-parameter analysis of a MIMO communication link, while the effective length matrix is convenient for its Z-parameter analysis. The effective length matrix framework is applied to a free space 2x2 coupled dipoles MIMO system and its results are in excellent agreement to those obtained by a Method of Moments (MoM) based field solver.
1. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., John Wiley, New York, 2005.
2. Orphanidis, S. J., Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas, February 2008. [Online] Available: http://www.ece.rutgers.edu/~orfanidi/ewa.
3. Meys, R., "A summary of the transmitting and receiving properties of antennas," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 42, No. 3, 49-53, June 2000. doi:10.1109/74.848947
4. Wunsch, A. D. and S.-P. Hu, "A closed-form expression for the driving-point impedance of the small inverted L antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 44, No. 2, 236-242, February 1996. doi:10.1109/8.481653
5. Wunsch, A. D., "The vector effective length of slot antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 39, No. 5, 705-709, May 1991. (comments by R. E. Collin and reply in IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 41, No. 3, 389--391, March 1993). doi:10.1109/8.81509
6. Yoon, I.-J., E. Balzovsky, Y. Buyanov, S.-H. Park, Y. Kim, and V. Koshelev, "Active integrated antenna for mobile TV signal reception," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 49, No. 12, 2998-3001, December 2007. doi:10.1002/mop.22968
7. Nakagawa, Y., M. Mimura, K. Miyano, Y. Koyanagi, and K. Fujimoto, "Improved method for evaluating antenna performance in mobile environment with consideration of polarization and phase," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 52, No. 5, 1189-1195, September 2003. doi:10.1109/TVT.2003.816003
8. Fuschini, F., C. Piersanti, F. Paolazzi, and G. Falciasecca, "Analytical approach to the backscattering from UHF RFID transponder," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 7, 33-35, 2008. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2007.914121
9. Licul, S. and W. Davis, "Unified frequency and time-domain antenna modeling and characterization," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 9, 2882-2888, September 2005. doi:10.1109/TAP.2005.854533
10. Iigusa, K., T. Ohira, and B. Komiyama, "An equivalent weight vector model of array antennas considering current distribution along dipole elements," Electronics and Communications in Japan, Part 1, Vol. 89, No. 2, 22-35, February 2006. doi:10.1002/ecja.20232
11. Kislinasky, A., R. Shavit, and J. Tabrikian, "Direction of arrival estimation in the presence of noise coupling in antenna arrays," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 7, 1940-1947, July 2007. doi:10.1109/TAP.2007.900175
12. Elnaggar, M. S., S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. K. Chaudhuri, Simulation of the achievable indoor MIMO capacity by using an adaptive phased-array, Proceedings of the IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference (RAWCON 2004), 155-158, Atlanta, GA, September 19--22, 2004.
13. Getu, B. N. and R. Janaswamy, "The effect of mutual coupling on the capacity of the MIMO cube," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 4, 240-244, 2005. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2005.852579
14. Farkasvolgyi, A. and L. Nagy, Mutual coupling effects on the mean capacity of MIMO antenna systems, PIERS Proceedings, 103-106, Prague, August 27--30, 2007.
15. Geyi, W., "Multi-antenna information theory," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 75, 11-50, 2007. doi:10.2528/PIER07052203
16. Kelley, D. F. and W. L. Stutzman, "Array antenna pattern modeling methods that include mutual coupling effects," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 41, No. 12, 1625-1632, December 1993. doi:10.1109/8.273305
17. Waldschmidt, C., S. Schulteis, and W. Wiesbeck, "Complete RF system model for analysis of compact MIMO arrays," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 53, No. 3, 579-586, May 2004. doi:10.1109/TVT.2004.825788
18. Wallace, J. W. and M. A. Jensen, "Mutual coupling in MIMO wireless systems: A rigorous network theory analysis," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1317-1325, July 2004. doi:10.1109/TWC.2004.830854
19. De Hoop, A. T., "The N-port receiving antenna and its equivalent electrical network," Philips Research Reports, Vol. 30, 302-315, 1975.
20. Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., USA, 1993.
21. Stutzman, W. L., Polarization in Electromagnetic Systems, Artech House, Inc., Norwood, MA, USA, 1992.
22. Almers, P., E. Bonek, A. Burr, N. Czink, M. Debbah, V. Degli-Esposti, H. Hofstetter, P. Kyosti, D. Laurenson, G. Matz, A. F. Molish, C. Oestges, and H. Ozcelik, "Survey of channel and radio propagation models for wireless MIMO systems," EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 2007, 2007.