A challenge faced by the information and communications technology (ICT) industry is the growing data volume and associated energy consumption. How to both meet a dynamic traffic demand at a consistently low energy consumption level is of importance from both commercial and climate change perspectives. This paper proposes a dynamic basestation concept that allows the number of active sectors to be adjusted in accordance with the traffic load. This is achieved through a novel switchable antenna design that can adjust the azimuth beam-width by using a tuneable reflector. Simulation and theoretical results show that the dynamic basestation can reduce the total operational energy of a cellular network by a peak of 75% and a mean of 38%.
1. Niu, Z., Y. Wu, J. Gong, and Z. Yang, "Cell zooming for cost-efficient green cellular networks," IEEE Communications Magazine, 74-79, Nov. 2010..
2. Auer, G., V. Giannini, I. Godor, P. Skillermark, M. Olsson, M. Imran, D. Sabella, M. Gonzalez, C. Desset, and O. Blume, "Cellular energy e±ciency evaluation framework," IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring, 1-6, May 2011.
3. Xiong, C., G. Li, S. Zhang, Y. Chen, and S. Xu, "Energy- and spectral-efficiency tradeoff in downlink OFDMA networks," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 10, No. 11, 3874-3885, Nov. 2011. doi:10.1109/TWC.2011.091411.110249
4. Guo, W. and T. O'Farrell, "Relay deployment in cellular networks: Planning and optimization," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), Sep. 2012.
5. Khirallah, C. and J. Thompson, "Energy and cost impact of relay and femtocell deployments in LTE-advanced," IET Communication, Vol. 5, 2617-2628, Dec. 2011. doi:10.1049/iet-com.2011.0111
6. Guo, W. and T. O'Farrell, "Small-net vs. relays in a heterogeneous architecture," Journal of Communications, JCM, 2012.
7. Paulraj, R. N. A. and D. Gore, Introduction to Space-time Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2003.
8. Holland, O. , V. Friderikos, and A. H. Aghvami, "Energy efficient cross band spectrum management for mobile operators," Proc. IEEE Globecom, 2020-2040, Dec. 2010.
9. Christofferson, J., "Energy efficiency by cell reconfiguration:MIMO to non-MIMO and 3-cell sites to omni," Green Wireless Communications and Networks Workshop, GreenNet, May 2010.
10. Alexiou, A. and M. Haardt, "Smart antenna technologies for future wireless systems: Trends and challenges," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 42, 90-97, Sep. 2004. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2004.1336725
11. Benedetti, M. , G. Oliveri, P. Rocca, and A. Massa, "A fully-adaptive smart antenna prototype: Ideal model and experimental validation in complex interference scenarios," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 96, 173-191, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09080904
12. Martinez-Lorenzo, J., M. Arias, O. Rubinos, J. Gutierrez, and A. Garcia-Pino, "A shaped and reconfigurable reflector antenna with sectorial beams for LMDS base station," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, 1346-1349, Apr. 2006. doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.872650
13. Jung, Y. B., "Dual-band reconfirable antenna for base-station applications," Electronics Letters, Vol. 46, 195-196, Feb. 2010. doi:10.1049/el.2010.2622
14. Cai, Y., Y. Guo, and P.-Y. Qin, "Frequency switchable printed yagi-uda dipole sub-array for base station antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, 1639-1642, Mar. 2012. doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2180337
15. Edalati, A. and T. A. Denidni, "Reconfigurable beamwidth antenna based on active partially reflective surfaces," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 1087-1090, 2009. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2009.2033213
16. Edalati, A., "High-gain reconfigurable sectoral antenna using an active cylindrical FSS structure," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, 2464-2472, 2011. doi:10.1109/TAP.2011.2152327
18. Li, G., S. Yang, Y. Chen, and Z.-P. Nie, "A novel electronic beam steering technique in time modulated antenna arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 97, 391-405, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09072602
19. Ford, K. L. and J. M. Rigelsford, "Street furniture antenna radiation pattern control using AMC surfaces," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, 3049-3052, 2008. doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.928808
20. Rigelsford, J. M., J. M. Collado, and K. L. Ford, "Radiation steering of a low profile street furniture antenna using an active AMC," Antennas and Propagation Conference, LAPC, 529-532, Loughborough, 2010.
21. Moradi, K. and S. Nikmehr, "A dual-band dual-polarized microstrip array antenna for base stations," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 527-541, 2012. doi:10.2528/PIER11111610
22. Perikos, G. and J. M. Rigelsford, "An 8 element broadband antenna for AMPS and GSM applications," Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP, 1-3, Apr. 2010.
23. Peng, H.-L. , W.-Y. Yin, J.-F. Mao, D. Huo, X. Hang, and L. Zhou, "A compact dual-polarized broadband antenna with hybrid beam-forming capabilities," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 118, 253-271, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIER11042905
24. Gesbert, D., H. Bolcskei, D. Gore, and A. Paulraj, "MIMO wireless channels: Capacity and performance prediction," IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference 2000, GLOBECOM'00, 1083-1088, 2000.
25. 3GPP, "TR36.814 V9.0.0: Further advancements for E-UTRA physical layer aspects (Release 9),", 3GPP, Technical Report,Mar. 2010.
26. EARTH, "WP2.D2.3: Energy efficiency analysis of the reference systems," Energy Aware Radio and Network Technologies (EARTH), Technical Report, Dec. 2010.
27. Ericsson, "Summary of downlink performance evaluation,", 3GPP TSG RAN R1-072444, Technical Report, May 2007.
28. Guo, W. and T. O'Farrell, "Green cellular network: Deployment solutions, sensitivity and tradeoffs," IEEE Proc. Wireless Advanced (WiAd), London, UK, Jun. 2011.
29. Dinnis, A. and J. Thompson, "The effects of including wraparound when simulating cellular wireless systems with relaying," IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 914-918, Apr. 2007.
30. Hedayati, M., M. Amirijoo, P. Frenger, and J. Moe, "Reducing energy consumption through adaptation of number of active radio units," IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, May 2011.