This paper mainly deals with the detection problem of the target in the presence of the Compound-Gaussian (CG) distribution clutter with the unknown Power Spectral Density (PSD). Traditionally, the CG distributions, in particular the K distribution and the complex multivariate t distribution, are the widely used models for the clutter measurements from the High Resolution (HR) radars. Recently, the CG distribution with the Inverse Gaussian (IG) texture, the specific class of CG clutter, is represented as the IG-CG distribution and validated to provide the better fit with the recorded clutter data than the mentioned two competitors. Within the IG-CG framework, the detector is here proposed in terms of the two-step Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) criterion, and the empirical estimation method is resorted to estimate the unknown PSD in order to adapt the realistic scenario. The proposed detector is tested on the real-life IPIX radar data, in comparison with the existing Adaptive Normalized Matched Filter (ANMF) processor, and the detection results illustrate that it outperforms ANMF.
1. Carretero-Moya, J., J. Gismero-Menoyo, A. Asensio-Lopez, and A. Blanco-del-Campo, "Application of the radon transform to detect small-targets in sea clutter," ET Radar Sonar Navig., Vol. 3, No. 2, 155-166, 2009. doi:10.1049/iet-rsn:20080123
3. Qu, Y., G. S. Liao, S. Q. Zhu, and X. Y. Liu, "Pattern synthesis of planar antenna array via convex optimization for airborne forward looking radar," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 84, 1-10, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIER08060301
4. Qu, Y., G. S. Liao, S. Q. Zhu, X. Y. Liu, and H. Jiang, "Performance analysis of beamforming for MIMO radar," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 84, 123-134, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIER08062306
5. Hatam, M., A. Sheikhi, and M. A. Masnadi-Shirazi, "Target detection in pulse-train MIMO radars applying ICA algorithms," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 122, 413-435, 2012. doi:10.2528/PIER11101206
6. Carretero-Moya, J., J. Gismero-Menoyo, A. Blanco-del-Campo, and A. Asensio-Lopez, "Statistical analysis of a high-resolution sea-clutter database," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2024-2037, 2010. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2009.2033193
7. Watts, S., C. J. Baker, and K. D. Ward, "Maritime surveillance radar. II. Detection performance prediction in sea clutter," IEE Proc.-F, Radar Signal Process, Vol. 137, No. 2, 63-72, 1990. doi:10.1049/ip-f-2.1990.0010
8. Conte, E., Lops, M., and G.Ricci, "Adaptive detection schemes in compound-Gaussian clutter," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 34, No. 4, 1058-1069, 1998. doi:10.1109/7.722671
9. Sangston, K. J. and K. R. Gerlach, "Coherent detection of radar targets in a non-Gaussian background," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 30, No. 2, 330-340, 1994. doi:10.1109/7.272258
10. Ward, K. D., R. J. A. Tough, and S. Watts, "Sea clutter: Scatter-ing, the K-distribution and radar performance," IET Radar Sonar Navig. Ser., Vol. 20, 45-95, 2006.
11. Haykin, S., R. Bakker, and B. W. Currie, "Uncovering nonlinear dynamics --- The case study of sea clutter," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 90, No. 2, 860-881, 2002. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2002.1015011
13. Greco, M., F. Gini, and M. Rangaswamy, "Non-stationarity analysis of real X-band clutter data at different resolutions," IEEE Radar Conf., 44-50, 2006.
14. Ward, K. D., C. J. Baker, and S. Watts, "Maritime surveillance radar. I. Radar scattering from the ocean surface," IEE Proc. Radar Signal Process., Vol. 137, No. 2, 51-62, 1990. doi:10.1049/ip-f-2.1990.0009
15. Nohara, T. J. and S. Haykin, "Canadian East Coast radar trials and the K-distribution," IEE Proc. Radar Signal Process., Vol. 138, No. 2, 80-88, 1991. doi:10.1049/ip-f-2.1991.0013
16. Bandiera, F., O. Besson, and G. Ricci, "Knowledge-aided covariance matrix estimation and adaptive detection in compound-Gaussian noise," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 58, No. 10, 5391-5396, 2010. doi:10.1109/TSP.2010.2052922
17. Blacknell, D. and R. J. A. Tough, "Parameter estimation for the K-distribution based on [z log(z)]," IEE Proc. Radar Sonar Navig., Vol. 148, No. 6, 309-312, 2001. doi:10.1049/ip-rsn:20010720
18. Conte, E., A. De Maio, and C. Galdi, "Statistical analysis of real clutter at different range resolution," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 40, 903-918, 2004. doi:10.1109/TAES.2004.1337463
19. Conte, E. and A. De Maio, "Mitigation techniques for non-Gaussian sea clutter," IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., Vol. 29, No. 2, 284-302, 2004. doi:10.1109/JOE.2004.826901
20. Balleri, , A., , A. Nehorai, and J. Wang, "Maximum likelihood estimation for compound-Gaussian clutter with inverse gamma texture," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 43, No. 2, 775-779, 2007. doi:10.1109/TAES.2007.4285370
21. Sangston, K. J., F. Gini, and M. S. Greco, "New results on coherent radar target detection in heavy-tailed compound-Gaussian clutter," IEEE Radar Conf., 779-784, 2010.
22. Shang, X. and H. Song, "Radar detection based on compound-Gaussian model with inverse gamma texture," IET Radar Sonar Navig., Vol. 5, No. 3, 315-321, 2011. doi:10.1049/iet-rsn.2010.0125
23. Ollila, E. , D. E. Tyler, V. Koivunen, and H. V. Poor, "Compound-Gaussian clutter modeling with an inverse Gaussian texture distribution," IEEE Signal Process. Lett., Vol. 19, No. 12, 876-879, 2012. doi:10.1109/LSP.2012.2221698
24. Johnson, N. L., S. Kotz, and N. Balakrishnan, Continuous Univariate Distributions, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1994.
25. Carretero-Moya, J., J. Gismero-Menoyo, A. Asensio-Lopez, and A. Blanco-Del-Campo, "Small-target detection in high-resolution heterogeneous sea-clutter: an empirical analysis," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 47, No. 3, 1880-1898, 2011. doi:10.1109/TAES.2011.5937271
26. Pulsone, N. B. and R. S. Raghavan, "Analysis of an adaptive CFAR detector in non-Gaussian interference," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 35, No. 3, 903-916, 1999. doi:10.1109/7.784060