The literature lacks detailed information about the electrical properties of the plastic filaments used in 3D printing. This opens the way for research on characterizing the types of materials used in these filaments. In this work, a method for the extraction of the dielectric constant and loss tangent of materials is described. This method, which is suitable for characterizing any dielectric material, is then used to characterize 3D-printed samples based on different filament materials and infill densities over a very wide frequency range [0.02-10 GHz]. The selected materials are Polylactic Acid (PLA), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and a semi-flex filament that combines the two important features of flexibility and endurance. These three types are the most commonly used in 3D printing. The two$-$line technique is applied to extract the complex permittivity of the material under test (MUT) from the propagation constant. This method employs the uncalibrated scattering parameters with different types of transmission line for any characteristic impedance. A rectangular coaxial transmission-line fixture has been used to validate the theoretical work through simulations and measurements involving the 3D filament samples.
Ali Al Takach,
Franck Moukanda Mbango,
"Two-Line Technique for Dielectric Material Characterization with Application in 3D-Printing Filament Electrical Parameters Extraction," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M,
Vol. 85, 195-207, 2019. doi:10.2528/PIERM19071702
1. Al Takach, A., F. Ndagijimana, J. Jomaah, and M. Al-Husseini, "3D-printed low-cost and lightweight TEM cell," IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing & Simulation (HPCS), 47-50, 2018.
2. Al Takach, A., F. Ndagijimana, J. Jomaah, and M. Al-Husseini, "Position optimization for probe calibration enhancement inside the TEM cell," IEEE International Multidisciplinary Conference on Engineering Technology (IMCET), 1-5, 2018.
3. Bongard, F., et al. "3D-printed Ka-band waveguide array antenna for mobile SATCOM applications," IEEE 11th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), 579-583, 2017.
4. Farooqui, M. F. and A. Shamim, "3D inkjet printed disposable environmental monitoring wireless sensor node," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), 1379-1382, 2017. doi:10.1109/MWSYM.2017.8058872
5. Kronberger, R. and P. Soboll, "New 3D printed microwave metamaterial absorbers with conductive printing materials," IEEE 46th European Microwave Conference (EuMC), 596-599, 2016.
6. Chen, L. F., C. K. Ong, C. P. Neo, V. V. Varadan, and V. K. Varadan, Microwave Electronics: Measurement and Materials Characterization, John Wiley & Sons, 2004. doi:10.1002/0470020466
7. Shwaykani, H., A. El-Hajj, J. Costantine, F. A. Asadallah, and M. Al-Husseini, "Dielectric spectroscopy for planar materials using guided and unguided electromagnetic waves," IEEE Middle East and North Africa Communications Conference (MENACOMM), 1-5, 2018.
8. Padmanabhan, S., P. Kirby, J. Daniel, and L. Dunleavy, "Accurate broadband on-wafer SOLT calibrations with complex load and thru models," IEEE 61st ARFTG Conference Digest, 5-10, 2003.
9. Vicente, A. N., G. M. Dip, and C. Junqueira, "The step by step development of NRW method," SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 738-742, 2011. doi:10.1109/IMOC.2011.6169318
10. Rothwell, E. J., J. L. Frasch, S. M. Ellison, P. Chahal, and R. O. Ouedraogo, "Analysis of the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method for characterizing the electromagnetic properties of engineered materials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 157, 31-47, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIER16071706
11. Kuek, C. Y., Measurement of Dielectric Material Properties, Rohde & Schwarz, 2012.
12. Chen, X., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Physical Review E, Vol. 70, No. 1, 016608, 2004. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.70.016608
13. Arslanagić, S., T. V. Hansen, N. A. Mortensen, A. H. Gregersen, O. Sigmund, R. W. Ziolkowski, and O. Breinbjerg, "A review of the scattering-parameter extraction method with clarification of ambiguity issues in relation to metamaterial homogenization," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 55, No. 2, 91-106, 2013. doi:10.1109/MAP.2013.6529320
14. Eul, H. J. and B. Schiek, "A generalized theory and new calibration procedures for network analyzer self-calibration," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 39, 724-731, 1991. doi:10.1109/22.76439
15. Marks, R. B., "A multiline method of network analyzer calibration," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 39, No. 7, 1205-1215, 1991. doi:10.1109/22.85388
16. Hasar, U. C., G. Buldu, M. Bute, J. J. Barroso, T. Karacali, and M. Ertugrul, "Determination of constitutive parameters of homogeneous metamaterial slabs by a novel calibration-independent method," AIP Advances, Vol. 4, No. 10, 107116, 2014. doi:10.1063/1.4898148
17. Frickey, D. A., "Conversions between S, Z, Y , H, ABCD, and T parameters which are valid for complex source and load impedances," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 42, 205-211, 1994. doi:10.1109/22.275248
18. Huynen, I., C. Steukers, and F. Duhamel, "A wideband line-line dielectrometric method for liquids, soils, and planar substrates," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 50, No. 5, 1343-1348, 2001. doi:10.1109/19.963208
19. Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, Wiley, 2005.
20. Liu, Z., L. Zhu, G. Xiao, and Q. S. Wu, "An effective approach to deembed the complex propagation constant of half-mode SIW and its application," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 109-116, 2016. doi:10.1109/TCPMT.2015.2496629
21. Zhou, L., S. Sun, H. Jiang, and J. Hu, "Electrical-thermal characterizations of SIW with numerical SOC technique," IEEE International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics (ICCEM), 1-2, 2018.
22. Le, T., B. Song, Q. Liu, R. A. Bahr, S. Moscato, C. P. Wong, and M. M. Tentzeris, "A novel strain sensor based on 3D printing technology and 3D antenna design," IEEE 65th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 981-986, 2015. doi:10.1109/ECTC.2015.7159714
23. Mirzaee, M. and S. Noghanian, "High frequency characterisation of wood-fill PLA for antenna additive manufacturing application," Electronics Letters, Vol. 52, No. 20, 1656-1658, 2016. doi:10.1049/el.2016.2505