In this paper, a low-profile fractal antenna and its array for DSRC-band applications have been proposed. The proposed single element is a newly designed fractal antenna which is right-handed circularly polarized (RHCP) and derived from the Koch-snowflake 1st-iteration. Moreover, a diagonal slot defect in the ground plane has been implemented for resonating the structure at the desired frequency and, to get a low cross-polarization over the operating frequency. The compact feed-network of the array is designed using s Wilkinson power-divider. A single element and a 4 × 1 antenna array are designed, prototyped and verified. The antenna array is designed by a single-layer microstrip structure with a compact size of 151.70 × 43.50 mm2. According to the experimental results, the single element and the antenna array have S11 of -15.27 dB and -13.95 dB, and RHCP gain of 6.14 dBic and 11.98 dBic, respectively. Moreover, the computed radiation efficiencies of single element and array are 78.17% and 71.50%, respectively, while CP bandwidths of single element and array are 49.00 MHz and 58.00 MHz, respectively. The performance of the proposed RHCP antenna is suitable for the DSRC-band application.
1. Jiang, D., V. Taliwal, A. Meier, W. Holfelder, and R. Herrtwich, "Design of 5.9GHz DSRC-based vehicular safety communication," IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 13, No. 5, 36-43, 2006.
2. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2016.
3. Pozar, D. M., "Microstrip antennas," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 80, 79-91, 1992.
4. Carver, K. and J. Mink, "Microstrip antenna technology," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2-24, 1981.
5. Guha, D. , Y. M. Antar, and Eds., Microstrip and Printed Antennas: New Trends, Techniques and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
6. Mandelbrot, B. B., The Fractal Geometry of Nature, WH freeman, New York, 1983.
7. Anguera, J., C. Puente, C. Borja, R. Montero, and J. Soler, "Small and high-directivity bow-tie patch antenna based on the Sierpinski fractal," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 31, No. 3, 239-241, 2001.
8. Ang, B. K. and B. K. Chung, "A wideband E-shaped microstrip patch antenna for 5–6 GHz wireless communications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 75, 397-407, 2007.
9. Singh, N., B. K. Kanaujia, M. Tariq Beg, Mainuddin, and S. Kumar, "A triple band circularly polarized rectenna for RF energy harvesting," Electromagnetics, Vol. 39, No. 7, 481-490, 2019.
10. Banerjee, J., A. Karmakar, R. Ghatak, and D. R. Poddar, "Compact CPW-fed UWB MIMO antenna with a novel modified Minkowski fractal defected ground structure (DGS) for high isolation and triple band-notch characteristic," Journal of electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 31, No. 15, 1550-1565, 2017.
11. Sarkar, C., D. Guha, C. Kumar, and Y. M. Antar, "New insight and design strategy to optimize cross-polarized radiations of microstrip patch over full bandwidth by probe current control," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 66, No. 8, 3902-3909, 2018.
12. Mishra, B., V. Singh, and R. Singh, "Gap coupled dual-band petal shape patch antenna for WLAN/WiMAX applications," Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 2, 185-198, 2018.
13. Joshi, A. and R. Singhal, "Vertex-fed Hexagonal antenna with low cross-polarization levels," Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 2, 138-145, 2019.
14. Haupt, R. L., Antenna Arrays. A Computational Approach, 2010.
15. Ludwig, R., "RF Circuit Design: Theory & Applications," Pearson Education, 2000.
16. Wilkinson, E. J., "An N-way hybrid power divider," IRE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 8, No. 1, 116-118, 1960.
17. Gao, Y., C. C. Chiau, X. Chen, and C. G. Parini, "Modified PIFA and its array for MIMO terminals," IEE Proceedings — Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 152, No. 4, 255-259, 2005.
18. Jayasinghe, J. M. J. W., J. Anguera, D. N. Uduwawala, and A. Andjar, "High-directivity genetic microstrip patch antenna," International Journal of Electronics Letters, Vol. 4, No. 3, 279-286, 2016.
19. Ali, M. T., M. R. Kamarudin, T. B. A. Rahman, R. Sauleau, and M. N. Md Tan, "Design of reconfigurable multiple elements microstrip rectangular linear array antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 6, 21-35, 2009.
20. Liu, F., Z. Zhang, W. Chen, Z. Feng, and M. F. Iskander, "An endfire beam-switchable antenna array used in vehicular environment," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 9, 195-198, 2010.
21. Varum, T., J. Matos, P. Pinho, R. Abreu, A. Oliveira, and J. Lopes, "Microstrip antenna array for multiband dedicated short range communication systems," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 53, No. 12, 2794-2796, 2011.
22. Cao, T., Y. Zou, A. M. Adawi, and M. J. Cryan, "Directive emission of red conjugated polymer embedded within zero index metamaterials," Optics Express, Vol. 22, No. 19, 22699-22706, 2014.
23. Cao, T., G. Zheng, and S. Wang, "Chemical control of continuous light-steering using an array of gradient Au/Bi2Se3/Au strips," RSC Advances, Vol. 5, No. 85, 69319-69324, 2015.
24. Cao, T., G. Zheng, S. Wang, and C. Wei, "Ultrafast beam steering using gradient Au-Ge2Sb2Te5-Au plasmonic resonators," Optics Express, Vol. 23, No. 14, 18029-18039, 2015.
25. Chatterjee, A., T. Mondal, D. G. Patanvariya, and R. P. K. Jagannath, "Fractal-based design and fabrication of low-sidelobe antenna array," AEU --- International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 83, 549-557, 2018.
26. Tran, X. L., J. Vesely, and F. Dvorak, "Optimization of nonuniform linear antenna array topology," Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 3, 341-349, 2018.
27. Patanvariya, D. G., A. Chatterjee, K. Kola, and S. Naik, "Design of a linear array of fractal antennas with high directivity and low cross-polarization for dedicated short range communication application," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, e 22083, 2019.
28. Toh, B. Y., R. Cahill, and V. F. Fusco, "Understanding and measuring circular polarization," IEEE Transactions on Education, Vol. 46, No. 3, 313-318, 2003.
29. Moharram, M. A. and A. A. Kishk, "MIMO antennas efficiency measurement using wheeler caps," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 64, No. 3, 1115-1120, 2015.