Owing to its all-day and all-weather imaging capabilities, high-resolution spaceborne synthetic aperture radar has shown great potential for the effective monitoring of wide-area, ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission lines. Scattering characteristics of UHV power lines in 3-m-resolution TerraSAR-X images is analyzed in this paper. First the study area and structure of the UHV transmission line are introduced. Then, the data processing method is described, which includes the preprocessing of TerraSAR-X images and target feature extraction. Finally, the scattering characteristics of the UHV power line are analyzed, and the analysis results demonstrate that the UHV power line can be visible in a TerraSAR-X image only when the angle between its extension direction and the azimuth of the sub-satellite ground track is within ±15°. Furthermore, besides the span length, the spatial location of the UHV power line in a TerraSAR-X image is also influenced by the angle between its extension direction and the azimuth of the sub-satellite ground track, as well as by the height difference between adjacent pylons.
1. Huang, D., Y. Shu, J. Ruan, and Y. Hu, "Ultra high voltage transmission in China: Developments, current status and future prospects," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 97, No. 3, 555-583, Mar. 2009. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2009.2013613
2. Wen, C., W. Li, T. Chen, J. Chen, and J. Liu, "The patrol inspection technology for UHV transmission lines based on the UAV technology," The 1st International Conference on Big Data Analytics for Cyber-Physical System in Smart City (BDCPS), 1600-1606, Shenyang, China, Dec. 2019.
3. Nie, D., et al., "Fault characteristics analysis of transmission lines with foreign bodies based on satellite remote sensing images," Shandong Electric Power, Vol. 46, No. 8, 77-80, 2019.
4. Awrangjeb, M., "Extraction of power line pylons and wires using airborne LiDAR data at different height levels," Remote Sensing, Vol. 11, No. 15, 1798, Aug. 2019. doi:10.3390/rs11151798
5. Goshi, D. S. and L. Q. Bui, "Power line characterization from an airborne data collection with a millimeter wave radar," Radar Sensor Technology XVIII, Baltimore, MD, United States, May 2014.
6. Chen, S., Z. Wang, and J. Zhao, "Spaceborne SAR technology application in the smart grid," 67th International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Guadalajara, Mexico, Sep. 2016.
7. Matikainen, L., et al., "Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys," ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens., Vol. 119, 10-31, Sep. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2016.04.011
8. Schwarz, G., et al., "Automated information extraction from high resolution SAR images: TerraSAR-X interpretation applications," International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Vol. 4, IV677-IV680, Cape Town, South Africa, Jul. 2009.
9. Liu, Y., et al., "High voltage power line scattering feature analysis in multi SAR sensors and dual polarization," 2nd International Workshop on Earth Observation and Remote Sensing Applications (EORSA), 225-229, Shanghai, China, Jun. 2012.
10. Liu, Y., et al., "Surveillance for 1000 kV transmission tower deformation using high-resolution SAR satellite," High Voltage Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 9, 2076-2080, Sep. 2009.
11. Li, T., et al., "Ultra high voltage power tower SAR interferometry and icing tower testing results," 6th Asia-Pacific Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar (APSAR), 1-5, Xiamen, China, Nov. 2019.
12. Li, S., et al., "Study on extra-high voltage power line scatterers in time series SAR," 3rd International Workshop on Earth Observation and Remote Sensing Applications (EORSA), 47-51, Changsha, China, Oct. 2014.
13. Chen, Z., et al., "Analysis on time series phase stability of power line scatterers in SAR images," Engineering of Surveying and Mapping, Vol. 26, No. 4, 22-26, Apr. 2017.
14. Zeng, Q., "Study on characteristics of maximum power frequency electric field gradient on ground and maximum sag of bundle conductor for UHVAC transmission line," Power System Technology, Vol. 32, No. 6, 1-7, Mar. 2008.
15. Tao, W. and Y. Liu, "Simulation method of high-resolution spaceborne SAR imaging for the South-to-North transmission line," J. Comput. Methods Sci. Eng., Vol. 17, No. 3, 569-579, 2017.
16. Liu, Y., K. Xu, S. Shi, and T. Li, "Effects of span length and radar polarimetry on the backscattering characteristics of ultra-high voltage power transmission line in TerraSAR-X images," 5th International Workshop on Earth Observation and Remote Sensing Applications (EORSA), 1-5, Xi'an, China, Dec. 2018.
17. Sarabandi, K. and M. Park, "Extraction of power line maps from millimeter-wave polarimetric SAR images," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 48, No. 12, 1802-1809, Dec. 2000. doi:10.1109/8.901268
18. Deng, P., P. Li, J. Zhang, and J. Yang, "Power line detection from synthetic aperture radar imagery using coherence of co-polarisation and cross-polarisation estimated in the Hough domain," IET Radar, Sonar, and Navigation, Vol. 6, No. 9, 873-880, 2012. doi:10.1049/iet-rsn.2011.0332
19. Han, X., et al., "The overview of development of UHV AC transmission technology in China," Zhongguo Dianji Gongcheng Xuebao, Vol. 40, No. 14, 4371-4386, 2020.
20. Liang, Z., Y. Li, H. Hu, and J. Jia, "Design of UHV AC transmission line in China," European Transactions on Electrical Power, Vol. 22, No. 1, 4-16, 2012. doi:10.1002/etep.577
21. Breit, H., et al., "TerraSAR-X SAR processing and products," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 48, No. 2, 727-740, Feb. 2010. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2009.2035497
22. Yan, W., et al., "Unsupervised change detection in SAR images based on frequency difference and a modified fuzzy C-means clustering," International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, No. 10, 3055-3075, May 2018. doi:10.1080/01431161.2018.1434325
23. Cheney, M., "A mathematical tutorial on synthetic aperture radar," SIAM Review, Vol. 43, No. 2, 301-312, Jun. 2001. doi:10.1137/S0036144500368859
24. Li, S., et al., "Analysis on scatters time series of extra-high voltage power line," Science of Surveying and Mapping, Vol. 40, No. 4, 126-130, Apr. 2015.
25. Xia, Y., H. Kaufmann, and X. Guo, "Differential SAR interferometry using corner reflectors," International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 1243-1246, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2002.
26. Willetts, B., M. B. Stevens, A. G. Stove, and M. S. Gashinova, "Spectrum analysis of high-resolution SAR data to obtain Bragg signatures of power cables," IET Radar, Sonar, and Navigation, Vol. 12, No. 8, 839-843, May 2018. doi:10.1049/iet-rsn.2017.0574
27. Sarabandi, K. and M. Park, "A radar cross-section model for power lines at millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 9, 2353-2359, Sep. 2003. doi:10.1109/TAP.2003.816380
28. Dai, K., et al., "Monitoring highway stability in Permafrost regions with X-band temporary scatterers stacking InSAR," Sensors, Vol. 18, No. 6, 1876, Jun. 2018. doi:10.3390/s18061876
29. Acar, S. A. and S. Bayir, "Detection of railroad networks in SAR images," International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 9, No. 9, 133-138, 2018. doi:10.14569/IJACSA.2018.090918
30. Essen, H., S. Boehmsdorff, G. Biegel, and A. Wahlen, "On the scattering mechanism of power lines at millimeter-waves," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 40, No. 9, 1895-1903, Sep. 2002. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2002.805144
31. Liu, Y., K. Liu, S. Shi, and K. Xu, "Electromagnetic scattering characteristics of ultra-high-voltage power transmission line at X-band frequencies," Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology, Vol. 52, No. 3, 173-178, Mar. 2020.
32. Shi, S., Y. Liu, L. Cheng, and Z. Chen, "Numerical simulation of the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of ultra-high voltage power line at X-band," IEEE 6th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC), 2289-2293, Chengdu, China, Dec. 2020.
33. Yue, H., B. Hu, and R. Yang, "Research on spaceborne SAR raw data simulation," 2006 CIE International Conference on Radar, 1-4, Shanghai, China, Oct. 2006.