In this paper, transient electromagnetic scattering by general Chiral objects is investigated using time-domain integral equations with the Poggio, Miller, Chang, Harrington, Wu, and Tsai (PMCHWT) formulations. By introducing a pair of equivalent electric and magnetic currents, electromagnetic fields inside a homogeneous Chiral region can be represented by these sources over its boundary. The uncoupled equations are solved numerically by the Galerkin's method that involves separate spatial and temporal testing procedures. The scaled Laguerre functions are used as the temporal basis and testing functions. The use of the Laguerre functions completely removes the time variable from computation, and the results are stable even at late times. Numerical results are presented and compared with analytical results, and good agreements are observed.
1. Lindell, I. V., A. H. Sihvola, S. A. Tretyakov, and A. J. Viitanen, Electromagnetic Waves in Chiral and Bi-isotropic Media, Artech House, Boston, MA, 1994.
2. Lindell, I. V., S. A. Tretyakov, and M. I. Oksanen, "Conductor-backed Tellegen slab as twist polarizer," Electron. Lett., Vol. 28, No. 3, 281-282, Jan. 1992.
3. Tellegen, B. D. H., "The gyrator: A new electric network element," Phillips Res. Rep., Vol. 3, 81, 1948.
4. Tretyakov, S. A. and A. A. Sochava, "Proposed composite material for nonreflecting shields and antenna radomes," Electron Lett., Vol. 29, 1048-1049, Jun. 1993.
5. Engheta, N. and P. Pelet, "Reduction of surface waves in chirostrip antennas," Electron Lett., Vol. 27, 5-7, Jan. 1991.
6. Pelet, P. and N. Engheta, "The theory of chirowaveguides," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propogat., Vol. 38, 90-98, Jan. 1990.
7. Zheng, H. X., X. Q. Sheng, and E. K. N. Yung, "Computation of scattering from conducting bodies coated with chiral materials using conformal FDTD," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 18, No. 11, 1471-1484, 2004.
8. Kluskens, M. S., "Method of moments analysis of scattering by chiral media,", Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 1991.
9. Shi, Y. and C. H. Chan, "Solution to electromagnetic scattering by bi-isotropic media using multilevel Green's functions interpolation method," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 97, 259-274, 2009.
10. Worasawate, D., "Electromagnetic scattering from an arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional chiral body,", Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 2002.
11. Jaggard, D. L. and J. C. Liu, "The matrix Riccati equation for scattering from stratified chiral spheres," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagt., Vol. 47, No. 7, 1201-1207, Jul. 1999.
12. Garcia, S. G., et al., "Extension of berenger's PML for bi-isotropic media," IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett., Vol. 8, No. 9, 297-299, 1998.
13. Demir, V., A. Z. Elsherbeni, and E. Arvas, "FDTD formulation for dispersive chiral media using the Z transform method," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propogat., Vol. 53, No. 10, 3374-3384, Oct. 2005.
14. Demir, V., "Electromagnetic scattering from three dimensional chiral objects using the FDTD method,", Ph.D. Dissertation, Syracuse University, Jun. 2004.
15. Semichaevsky, A., et al., "Novel BIFDTD approach for the analysis of chiral cylinders and spheres," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagt., Vol. 54, No. 3, 925-932, Mar. 2006.
16. Rao, S. M., Time-domain Electromagnetics, Academic Press, San Diego, 1999.
17. Chen, Z. Z. and M. M. Ney, "The method of weighted residuals: A general approach to deriving time- and frequency-domain numerical methods," IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag., Vol. 51, No. 1, 51-70, Feb. 2009.
18. Jung, B. H., T. K. Sarkar, Y. S. Chung, S. P. Magdalena, Z. Ji, S. Jang, and K. Kim, "Transient electromagnetic scattering from dielectric objects using the electric field integral equation with Laguerre polynomials as temporal basis functions," IEEE Trans. on Antennas Propogat., Vol. 52, No. 9, 2329-2339, Sept. 2004.
19. Jung, B. H., et al., "Solving the time-domain magnetic field integral equation for dielectric bodies without the time variable through the use of entire domain Laguerre polynomials," Electromagn., Vol. 24, No. 6, 385-408, Sept. 2004.
20. Jung, B. H., T. K. Sarkar, and Y.-S. Chung, "Solution of time domain PMCHW formulation for transient electromagnetic scattering from arbitrarily shaped 3-D dielectric objects," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 45, 291-312, 2004.
21. Wu, Z. H., "Time domain integral equations for scattering and radiation by three-dimensional homogeneous Bi-isotropic objects with arbitrary shape,", Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Jul. 2010.
22. Ney, M. M., "Method of moments as applied to electromagnetic problems," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 33, No. 10, 972-980, Nov. 1985.
23. Rao, S. M., "Electromagnetic scattering and radiation of arbitrarily shaped surfaces by triangular patch modeling,", Ph.D. Dissertation, University Mississippi, Aug. 1980.
24. Sihvola, A. H. and I. V. Lindell, "Bi-isotropic constitutive relations," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 4, No. 8, 295-297, Jul. 1991.
25. Gradshteyn, I. S. and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series and Products, Academic, New York, 1980.
26., , FEKO electromagnetic simulation software, Available online: http://www.feko.info. .
27. Zhu, H., Z.-H. Wu, X.-Y. Zhang, and B.-J. Hu, "Time-domain integral equation solver for radiation from dipole loaded with general Bi-isotropic objects," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 35, 349-367, 2011.