Failure mode characterization was applied to coplanar transmission lines by utilizing 0.5-10-GHz S-parameter measurements and post-calculated TDR (Time-Domain-Reflectometry) analysis. Coplanar waveguide transmission lines were inkjet-printed on 1.0-mm-thick flexible plastic RF substrates. Inductive, resistive, and capacitive types of failures-as the main failure modes caused by manufacturing, bending, or thermal cycling stresses-were investigated. The inkjet-printed CPW (Co-Planar Waveguide) lines were damaged by inductive shorts due to mechanical hits or resistive and capacitive failures due to bending of the substrate. By using the TDR method the type and physical location of the failure can be determined.
1. Pynttari, V., E. Halonen, M. Mantysalo, and R. Makinen, "The effect of sintering profile and printed layer variations with inkjet-printed large-area applications," Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 1874-1879, 2012.
2. Subramanian, V., P. C. Chang, J. B. Lee, S. E. Molesa, and S. K. Volkman, "Printed organic transistors for ultra-low-cost RFID applications," IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, Vol. 28, No. 4, 742-747, 2005. doi:10.1109/TCAPT.2005.859672
3. Nilsson, H.-E., H. A. Andersson, A. Manuilskiy, T. Unander, K. Hammarling, J. Siden, and M. Gulliksson, "Printed write once and read many sensor memories in smart packaging applications," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 11, No. 9, 1759-1767, 2011. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2010.2095496
4. Gao, J., J. Siden, and H.-E. Nilsson, "Printed temperature sensors for passive RFID tags," PIERS Proceedings, 845-848, Xi'an, China, Mar. 22-26, 2010.
5. Trivedi, U. B., D. Lakshminarayana, I. L. Kothari, N. G. Patel, H. N. Kapse, K. K. Makhija, P. B. Patel, and C. J. Panchal, "Potentiometric biosensor for urea determination in milk," Sensors and Actuators, Vol. 140, No. 1, 260-266, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2009.04.022
6. Koskinen, S., L. Pykari, and M. Mantysalo, "Inkjet printed flexible user interface module," Proc. of 62nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 1009-1014, San Diego, CA, USA, May 29-Jun. 1, 2012.
7. Pekkanen, V., M. Mantysalo, K. Kaija, P. MansikkamÄaki, E. Kunnari, K. Laine, J. Niittynen, S. Koskinen, E. Halonen, and U. Caglar, "Utilizing inkjet printing to fabricate electrical inter-connections in a system-in-package," ELSEVIER Microelectronic Engineering, Vol. 84, No. 11, 2382-2390, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.mee.2010.04.013
8. Mantysalo, M. and P. Mansikkamaki, "An inkjet-deposited antenna for 2.4 GHz applications," ELSEVIER International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 63, 31-35, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2007.10.004
9. Lee, H.-J., S. Seo, K. Yun, J. W. Joung, I.-Y. Oh, and J.-G. Yook, "RF performance of CPW transmission line fabricated with inkjet printing technology," APMC Microwave Conference, 1-4, Asia-Pacific, Dec. 16-20, 2008.
10. Chen, M.-K., C.-C. Tai, Y.-J. Huang, and I.-C. Wu, "Failure analysis of BGA package by a TDR approach," The 4th International Symposium on Electronic Materials and Packaging, 112-116, Dec. 4-6, 2002.
11. Abessolo-Bidzo, D., P. Poirier, P. Descamps, and B. Domenges, "Isolating failing sites in IC packages using time domain reflectometry: Case studies," Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 45, No. 9-11, 1639-1644, 2005. doi:10.1016/j.microrel.2005.07.068
12. Kwon, D., M. H. Azarian, and M. Pecht, "Early detection of interconnect degradation by continuous monitoring of RF impedance," IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, Vol. 9, No. 2, 296-304, 2009. doi:10.1109/TDMR.2009.2020170
13. Chen, M.-K., C.-C. Tai, and Y.-J. Huang, "Non-destructive analysis of interconnection in two-die BGA using TDR," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 55, No. 2, 400-405, 2006. doi:10.1109/TIM.2006.870318
14. Li, H.-H., J.-Y. Jao, M.-K. Chen, L.-S. Jang, and Y.-C. Hsu, "Open-ended MEMS probes for dielectric spectroscopy of biological cells at radio frequencies," PIERS Online, Vol. 5, No. 3, 251-255, 2009. doi:10.2529/PIERS080905231353
15. Putaala, J., T. Kangasvieri, O. Nousiainen, H. Jantunen, and M. Moilanen, "Detection of thermal cycling-induced failures in RF/microwave BGA assemblies," IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, Vol. 31, No. 3, 240-247, Jul. 2008. doi:10.1109/TEPM.2008.926289
16. Putaala, J., O. Nousiainen, M. Komulainen, T. Kangasvieri, H. Jantunen, and M. Moilanen, "Influence of thermal-cycling-induced failures on the RF performance of ceramic antenna assemblies," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 1, No. 9, 1465-1472, 2011. doi:10.1109/TCPMT.2011.2110655
17. Tay, M. Y., L. Cao, M. Venkata, L. Tran, W. Donna, W. Qiu, J. Alton, P. F. Taday, and M. Lin, "Advanced failure isolation technique using electro-optical terahertz pulse reflectometry," The 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA), 1-5, Jul. 2-6, 2012.
18. Cai, Y., Z. Wang, R. Dias, and D. Goyal, "Electro optical terahertz pulse reflectometry - An innovative failure isolation tool," The 60th Proceedings of Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 1309-1315, Las Vegas, NV, USA, 2010.
19. Mantysalo, M., L. Xie, F. Jonsson, Y. Feng, A. Lopez Cabezas, and L.-R. Zheng, "System integration of smart packages using printed electronics," Proc. of 62nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 997-1002, San Diego, CA, USA, May 29-Jun. 1, 2012.
20. Mantysalo, M. and P. Mansikkamaki, "Inkjet deposited intercon-nections for electronic packaging," Proceedings of IST Digital Fabrication, 813-817, Alaska, USA, Sep. 16-21, 2007.
21. Miettinen, J., K. Kaija, M. Mantysalo, P. Mansikkamaki, M. Kuchiki, M. Tsubouchi, R. Ronkka, K. Hashizume, and A. Kamigori, "Molded substrates for inkjet printed module," IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, Vol. 32, No. 2, 293-301, 2009. doi:10.1109/TCAPT.2008.2008314