In this paper we compare current implementations of commonly used numerical techniques - the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method, the Finite-Integration Technique (FIT), and Time-Domain Integral Equations (TDIE) - to solve the canonical problem of a horizontal dipole antenna radiating over lossless and lossy half-spaces. These types of environment are important starting points for simulating many Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR applications which operate in the near-field of the antenna, where the interaction among the antenna, the ground, and targets is important. We analysed the simulated current at the centre of the dipole antenna, as well as the electric field at different distances from the centre of the antenna inside the half-space. We observed that the results from the simulations using the FDTD and FIT methods agreed well with each other in all of the environments. Comparisons of the electric field showed that the TDIE technique agreed with the FDTD and FIT methods when observation distances were towards the far-field of the antenna but degraded closer to the antenna. These results provide evidence necessary to develop a hybridisation of current implementations of the FDTD and TDIE methods to capitalise on the strengths of each technique.
Craig WarrenSilvestar SesnicAlessio VenturaLara PajewskiDragan PoljakAntonios Giannopoulos
, "Comparison of Time-Domain Finite-Difference, Finite-Integration, and Integral-Equation Methods for Dipole Radiation in Half-Space Environments," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M,
Vol. 57, 175-183, 2017. doi:10.2528/PIERM17021602 http://www.jpier.org/PIERM/pier.php?paper=17021602
1. Banos, A., Jr. and J. P. Wesley, "The horizontal electric dipole in a conducting half-space,", Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1953. doi:10.1029/95RS02334
2. Bretones, A. R. and A. G. Tijhuis, "Transient excitation of a straight thin wire segment over an interface between two dielectric half spaces," Radio Science, Vol. 30, No. 6, 1723-1738, 1995. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2008.09.009
3. Cassidy, N. J. and T. M. Millington, "The application of finite-difference time-domain modelling for the assessment of GPR in magnetically lossy materials," Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 67, No. 4, 296-308, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIERL07112904
4. Chen, H. T., J.-X. Luo, and D.-K. Zhang, "An analytic formula of the current distribution for the vlf horizontal wire antenna above lossy half-space," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 1, 149-158, 2008.
6. Giannopoulos, A., "Modelling ground penetrating radar by gprMax," Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 19, No. 10, 755-762, 2005.
7. Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, GMES - Gist Maxwell's equations solver, [online], http://sourceforge.net/projects/gmes/, Mar. 24, 2017. doi:10.1007/s11220-005-4223-2
8. Liu, L. and S. A. Arcone, "Propagation of radar pulses from a horizontal dipole in variable dielectric ground: A numerical approach," Subsurface Sensing Technologies and Applications, Vol. 6, No. 1, 5-24, 2005.
12. Miller, E. K., A. J. Poggio, and G. J. Burke, "An integro-differential equation technique for the time domain analysis of thin wire structures. I. The numerical method," Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 12, No. 1, 24-48, 1973. doi:10.6028/jres.065D.065
13. Moore, R. K. and W. E. Blair, "Dipole radiation in a conducting half-space," Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards - D. Radio Propagation, Vol. 65, No. 6, 547-563, 1961.
14. Poljak, D., S. Sesnic, D. Paric, and K. El Khamlichi Drissi, "Direct time domain modeling of the transient field transmitted in a dielectric half-space for gpr applications," 2015 International Conference on IEEE Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), 345-348, 2015. doi:10.1002/9780470116883.ch11
16. Poljak, D. and V. Roje, "Time domain calculation of the parameters of thin wire antennas and scatterers in a half-space configuration," IEE Proceedings - Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 145, No. 1, 57-63, 1998. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2011.02.009
17. Rančić, M. P. and P. D. Rančić, "Horizontal linear antennas above a lossy half-space: A new model for the Sommerfeld’s integral kernel," International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEU), Vol. 65, No. 10, 879-887, 2011.
19. Rynne, B. P. and P. D. Smith, "Stability of time marching algorithms for the electric field integral equation," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 4, No. 12, 1181-1205, 1990. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2014.2344858
20. Shangguan, P. and I. L. Al-Qadi, "Calibration of fdtd simulation of GPR signal for Asphalt pavement compaction monitoring," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 53, No. 3, 1538-1548, 2015. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2009.0033
21. Shoory, A., R. Moini, and S. H. H. Sadeghi, "Direct use of discrete complex image method for evaluating electric field expressions in a lossy half space," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 4, No. 2, 258-268, 2010. doi:10.1029/2001RS002529
22. Slob, E. and J. Fokkema, "Coupling effects of two electric dipoles on an interface," Radio Science, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2002. doi:10.1190/1.3480619
23. Slob, E., M. Sato, and G. Olhoeft, "Surface and borehole ground-penetrating-radar developments," Geophysics, Vol. 75, No. 5, 75A103-75A120, 2010.
24. Soldovieri, F., J. Hugenschmidt, R. Persico, and G. Leone, "A linear inverse scattering algorithm for realistic GPR applications," Near Surface Geophysics, Vol. 5, No. 1, 29-42, 2007. doi:10.1016/j.ndteint.2015.09.003
25. Solla, M., R. Asorey-Cacheda, X. Núñez-Nieto, and B. Conde-Carnero, "Evaluation of historical bridges through recreation of gpr models with the FDTD algorithm," NDT & E International, Vol. 77, 19-27, 2016. doi:10.1002/andp.19093330402
26. Sommerfeld, A., "Über die ausbreitung der wellen in der drahtlosen telegraphie," Annalen der Physik, Vol. 333, 665-736, 1909. doi:10.1002/andp.19263862516
27. Sommerfeld, A., "Über die ausbreitung der wellen in der drahtlosen telegraphie," Annalen der Physik, Vol. 386, No. 25, 1135-1153, 1926. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2013.2289952
28. Tran, A. P., F. Andre, and S. Lambot, "Validation of near-field groundpenetrating radar modeling using full-wave inversion for soil moisture estimation," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 52, No. 9, 5483-5497, 2014. doi:10.1139/p61-111
29. Wait, J. R., "The electromagnetic fields of a horizontal dipole in the presence of a conducting half-space," Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 39, No. 7, 1017-1028, 1961. doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2016.08.020
30. Warren, C., A. Giannopoulos, and I. Giannakis, "GPRMAX: Open source software to simulate electromagnetic wave propagation for ground penetrating radar," Computer Physics Communications, Vol. 209, 163-170, 2016.
31. Weiland, T., "A discretization model for the solution of Maxwell’s equations for six-component fields," Archiv Elektronik und Uebertragungstechnik, Vol. 31, 116-120, 1977. doi:10.1109/TAP.1966.1138693
32. Yee, K. S., "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 14, No. 3, 302-307, 1966.