Aparticular challenge encountered in designing massive MIMO systems is how to handle the enormous computational demands and complexity which necessitates developing a new highly efficient and accurate approach. Considering the large antenna array employed in the Base-Station (BS), in this work, we present a new paradigm to significantly reduce the simulation runtime and improve the computational efficiency of the combined rigorous simulations of the antenna array, 3-D channel model, and radiation patterns of the User Equipment (UE). We present an approach for evaluating a closed-loop massive MIMO channel capacity using 3-D beamforming to take advantage of spatial resources. The approach subdivides an M×N array at the BS into columns, rows, rectangular, or square subarrays, each consisting of a sub-group of antenna elements. The coupling is rigorously taken into account within each subarray; however, it is ignored among the subarrays. Results are demonstrated for a dual-polarized microstrip array with 128 ports. We consider simulation runtimes with respect to two different propagation environments and two different Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNRs). It is shown that the maximum difference in the closed-loop capacity evaluated using rigorous electromagnetic simulations and our proposed approach is 2.4% using the 2×(8×4) approach for both the 3-D Channel Model in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP/3D) and the 3-D model in the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d/3D) model with a 46% reductional in computational resources compared with the full-wave antenna array modeling approach.
Nicholas E. Buris,
Hussain M. Al-Rizzo,
"An Efficient Paradigm for Evaluating the Channel Capacity of Closed-Loop Massive MIMO Systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,
Vol. 98, 1-16, 2020. doi:10.2528/PIERC19082806
1. Al-Wahhamy, A., H. Al-Rizzo, and N. E. Buris, "On the modeling of antenna arrays for massive MIMO systems," 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, 1565-1566, 2018.
2. Hussain, R., M. U. Khan, W. Abu-Al-Saud, A. H. Muqaibel, and M. S. Sharawi, "Characterization of reconfigurable MIMO antennas for channel capacity in an indoor environment," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 65, 67-77, 2016.
3. Lozano, A. and A. M. Tulino, "Capacity of multiple-transmit multiple-receive antenna architectures," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, Vol. 48, No. 12, 3117-3128, Dec. 2002.
4. Gao, X., O. Edfors, F. Rusek, and F. Tufvesson, "Massive MIMO performance evaluation based on measured propagation data," IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., Vol. 14, No. 7, 3899-3911, 2015.
5. Wallace, J. W. W. and M. A. Jensen, "The capacity of MIMO wireless systems with mutual coupling," Proc. IEEE 56th Veh. Technol. Conf., Vol. 2, 696-700, 2002.
6. Fletcher, P. N., M. Dean, and A. R. Nix, "Mutual coupling in multi-element array antennas and its influence on MIMO channel capacity," Electron. Lett., Vol. 39, No. 4, 342, 2003.
7. Xu, Z., S. Sfar, and R. S. Blum, "Receive antenna selection for closely-spaced antennas with mutual coupling," IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., Vol. 9, No. 2, 652-661, 2010.
8. Shen, S., M. R. McKay, and R. D. Murch, "MIMO systems with mutual coupling: How many antennas to pack into fixed-length arrays?," ISITA/ISSSTA 2010 --- 2010 Int. Symp. Inf. Theory and Its Appl., 531-536, 2010.
9. Wallace, J. W. and M. A. Jensen, "Mutual coupling in MIMO wireless systems: A rigorous network theory analysis," IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., Vol. 3, No. 4, 1317-1325, 2004.
10. Masouros, C., J. Chen, K. Tong, M. Sellathurai, and T. Ratnarajah, "Towards massive-MIMO transmitters: On the effects of eeploying increasing antennas in fixed physical space," Futur. Netw. Mob. Summit, 1-10, 2013.
11. Masouros, C., M. Sellathurai, and T. Ratnaraja, "Large-scale MIMO transmitters in fixed physical spaces: The effect of transmit correlation and mutual coupling," IEEE Trans. Commun., Vol. 61, No. 7, 2794-2804, Jul. 2013.
12. Halbauer, H., S. Saur, J. Koppenborg, and C. Hoek, "3D beamforming: Performance improvement for cellular networks," Bell Labs Tech. J., Vol. 18, No. 2, 37-56, 2013.
13. Yu, B., L. Yang, and H. Ishii, "3D beamforming for capacity improvement in macrocell-assisted small cell architecture," 2014 IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2014, 2014.
14. Zhang, Z., K. C. Teh, K. H. Li, and , "Study of three-dimensional beamforming strategies in cellular networks with clustered user distribution," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 2016.
15. Babich, F., M. Comisso, and A. Cuttin, "Uplink capacity of interfered millimeter-wave communications: 3D theoretical analysis," 2016 IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2016 --- Proceedings, 2016.
16., "3GPP TR 37.977 V13.3," Tech. Specif. Gr. Radio Access Netw., No. Release 14, 1-20, 2016.
17. Lee, J.-H. and Y. L. Chen, "Performance analysis of antenna array beamformers with mutual coupling effects," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 33, 291-315, 2011.
18. Recioui, A. and H. Bentarzi, "Capacity optimization of MIMO wireless communication systems using a hybrid genetic-taguchi algorithm," Wirel. Pers. Commun., Vol. 71, No. 2, 1003-1019, 2013.
19. Recioui, A., "Application of a galaxy-based search algorithm to MIMO system capacity optimization," Arab. J. Sci. Eng., Vol. 41, No. 9, 3407-3414, 2015.
20. Recioui, A., "Application of the spiral optimization technique to antenna array design," Handbook of Research on Emergent Applications of Optimization Algorithms, 364-385, 2IGI Global, 018.
21. Ademaj, F., M. Taranetz, and M. Rupp, "3GPP 3D MIMO channel model: A holistic implementation guideline for open source simulation tools," Eurasip J. Wirel. Commun. Netw., Vol. 2016, No. 1, 1-14, 2016.
22. Tshibanda, L., et al. "Neuroimaging after COMA," Neuroradiology, Vol. 52, No. 1, 15-24, Jan. 2010.
23. Song, Y., X. Yun, S. Nagata, and L. Chen, "Investigation on elevation beamforming for future LTE-advanced," 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC), 106-110, 2013.
24. Larsson, E. G., O. Edfors, F. Tufvesson, and T. L. Marzetta, "Massive MIMO for next generation wireless systems," IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 52, No. 2, 186-195, Feb. 2014.
25. Mondal, B., et al. "3D channel model in 3GPP," IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 53, No. 3, 16-23, Mar. 2015.
26. Nam, Y., et al. "Full dimension MIMO for LTE-advanced and 5G," 2015 Information Theory and Applications Workshop (ITA), 143-148, 2015.
27. Lee, W., S.-R. Lee, H.-B. Kong, and I. Lee, "3D beamforming designs for single user MISO systems," 2013 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 3914-3919, 2013.
28. Cheng, X., et al. "Communicating in the real world: 3D MIMO," IEEE Wirel. Commun., Vol. 2, No. 4, 136-144, Aug. 2014.
29. Yu, Y., J. Zhang, M. Shafi, M. Zhang, and J. Mirza, "Statistical characteristics of measured 3-dimensional MIMO channel for outdoor-to-indoor scenario in China and New Zealand," Chinese J. Eng., Vol. 2016, 1-10, 2016.
30. Thomas, T. A., H. C. Nguyen, G. R. Maccartney, and T. S. Rappaport, "3D mmWave channel model proposal," IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2014.
31. Zhang, F., S. Sun, Q. Gao, and H. Li, "Hybrid CSI-RS transmission mechanism-based 3D beamforming scheme for FDD massive MIMO system," China Commun., Vol. 13, No. Supplement2, 109-119, 2016.
32. Al-Wahhamy, A., H. Al-Rizzo, and N. E. Buris, "Efficient evaluation of massive MIMO channel capacity," IEEE Syst. J., 1-7, 2019.
34. Buris, N. E., M. Abdul-Gaffoor, and E. Krenz, "Capacity based MIMO antenna design," 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, 1695-1696, 2017.
35. Buris, N. E., "On the complete cescription of antenna systems for MIMO applications," of the Antenna Applications Symposium, 18-33, 2017.
36. Buris, N. E., "Active E-field gain: Toward a standard description of MEAs," 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, 2061-2062, 2017.
37. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO https://www.cst.com, "CST MICROWAVE STUDIO,", 2018.
38. De Flaviis, F., L. Jofre, J. Romeu, and A. Grau, Multiantenna Systems for MIMO Communications, 250, Morgan & Claypool, 2013.
39. Grau, A., H. Jafarkhani, and F. De Flaviis, "A reconfigurable multiple-input multiple-output communication system," IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., Vol. 7, No. 5, 1719-1733, 2008.
40. Goldsmith, A., Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.