There are millions of people in the world exposed to weather-related land deformation hazards. These weather-related mass movement activities are most likely due to climate change, the decrease of permafrost area, the change in precipitation pattern, etc. Landslide is the most common land deformation incidents reported in Malaysia for the past few years. Therefore, Remote Sensing and Surveillance Technologies (CRSST), Multimedia University (MMU), Malaysia has developed the ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GBSAR) as a tool to monitor the high-risk area, which is prone to landslide continuously. Preliminary testing of the GBSAR has been conducted in Cameron Highland, Malaysia to verify the performance of the GBSAR and its capability of detecting landslide. However, the phase stability of the GBSAR is one of the most crucial factors that affect the detection capability of GBSAR, especially when it comes to the sub-mm measurement. This paper reports the phase stability study of the GBSAR and presents an empirical model for interferometric phase statistics.
Chee Siong Lim,
Yee Kit Chan,
William How-Hsin Hii,
"Phase Statistical Model and Correction in Imagery of Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBSAR) for Land Deformation Monitoring," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,
Vol. 97, 189-200, 2019. doi:10.2528/PIERC19090506
1. Crosetto, M., B. Crippa, and E. Biescas, "Early detection and in-depth analysis of deformation phenomena by radar interferometry," Engineering Geology, Vol. 79, No. 1-2, 81-91, 2005. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2004.10.016
2. Ferretti, A., A. Monti-Guarnieri, C. Prati, F. Rocca, and D. Massonet, InSAR Principles-guidelines for SAR Interferometry Processing and Interpretation, TM-19, ESA Publications, The Netherlands, 2007.
3. Gens, R. and J. L. van Genderen, "Review article sar interferometry --- Issues, techniques, applications," International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 17, No. 10, 1803-1835, 1996. doi:10.1080/01431169608948741
4. Goldstein, R. M., H. Engelhardt, B. Kamb, and R. M. Frolich, "Satellite radar interferometry for monitoring ice sheet motion: Application to an antarctic ice stream," Science, Vol. 262, No. 5139, 1525-1530, 1993. doi:10.1126/science.262.5139.1525
5. Graham, L. C., "Synthetic interferometer radar for topographic mapping," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 62, No. 6, 763-768, 1974. doi:10.1109/PROC.1974.9516
6. Just, D. and R. Bamler, "Phase statistics of interferograms with applications to synthetic aperture radar," Applied Optics, Vol. 33, No. 20, 4361-4368, 1994. doi:10.1364/AO.33.004361
7. Kenyi, L. W. and V. Kaufmann, "Estimation of rock glacier surface deformation using sar interferometry data," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 41, No. 6, 1512-1515, 2003. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2003.811996
8. Lanari, R., O. Mora, M. Manunta, J. J. Mallorqu´ı, P. Berardino, and E. Sansosti, "A small-baseline approach for investigating deformations on full-resolution differential sar interferograms," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 42, No. 7, 1377-1386, 2004. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2004.828196
9. Lange, K. L., R. J. A. Little, and J. M. G. Taylor, "Robust statistical modeling using the T distribution," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 84, No. 408, 881-896, 1989.
10. Lazarov, A., C. Minchev, and D. Minchev, "Multi-satellite interferometric SAR system," Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Telecommunications and Remote Sensing --- Volume 1: ICTRS, 33-42, INSTICC, SciTePress, 2016. doi:10.5220/0006226900330042
11. Massonnet, D. and T. Rabaute, "Radar interferometry: Limits and potential," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 31, No. 2, 455-464, 1993. doi:10.1109/36.214922
12. Yun, S.-H., Volcano Deformation Modeling Using Radar Interferometry, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2008.
13. Zebker, H. A. and R. M. Goldstein, "Topographic mapping from interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations ," Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 91, No. B5, 4993-4999, 1986. doi:10.1029/JB091iB05p04993
14. Zebker, H. A., P. A. Rosen, R. M. Goldstein, A. Gabriel, and C. L. Werner, "On the derivation of coseismic displacement fields using differential radar interferometry: The landers earthquake," Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 99, No. B10, 19617-19634, 1994. doi:10.1029/94JB01179
15. Zebker, H. A., P. A. Rosen, and S. Hensley, "Atmospheric effects in interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation and topographic maps," Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 102, No. B4, 7547-7563, 1997. doi:10.1029/96JB03804