The presence of the ground affects the propagation on overhead lines through a magnetically induced earth return current. Numerous researches have been conducted to study this influence by considering a homogeneous earth. In the current paper, the transient response of Multi-conductor transmission Lines (MTL) considering a lossy stratified earth is presented. Based on the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) and an improvement of the convolution integral arising from time-domain modeling of frequency-dependent conductors' parameters through the Vector Fitting (VF) algorithm, a novel numerical procedure for solution of a system of telegraph equations is presented. Many simulations are introduced to highlight the effect of soil stratification on the response of the line for a given excitation. The efficiency of an equivalent model, using an equivalent single-conductor, of a multiple conductor system is also established in this work.
2. Pollaczek, F., "Uber das feld einer unerdlich langen wechselstrom-durchflossenen Einfachleitung," Elect. Nachr. Tech., Vol. 9, 339, 1926.
3. Wise, W. H., "Propagation of high frequency currents in ground return circuits," Proc. Inst. Radio Eng., Vol. 22, 522-527, 1934. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1934.226359
4. Sunde, E. D., Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems, 99-139, 2nd Edition, Dover Publications, 1968.
5. Papadopoulos, T. A., K. Papagiannis, and D. P. Labridis, "A generalized model for the calculation of the impedances and admittances of overhead power lines above stratified earth," Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 80, 1160-1170, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2010.03.009
6. Nakagawa, N., A. Ametani, and K. Iwamoto, "Further studies on wave propagation in overhead lines with earth return: Impedance of stratified earth," Proc. IEE, Vol. 120, No. 12, 1521-1528, 1973.
7. Agrawal, A. K., H. J. Price, and S. H. Gurbaxani, "Transient response of multiconductor transmission line excited by a nonuniform electromagnetic field," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 22, 119-129, 1980. doi:10.1109/TEMC.1980.303824
8. Djorjevic, A. R., T. S. Sarkar, and R. F. Harrington, "Time domain response of multiconductor transmission lines," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 6, 119-764, June 1987.
9. Paul, C. R., Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines, Ch. 5, New York, Wiley, 1994.
10. Rachidi, F., C. A. Nucci, and M. Ianoz, "Transient analysis of multiconductor lines above a lossy ground," IEEE Trans. Electromagn., Vol. 14, No. 1, January 1999.
11. Kordi, B., J. Lovetri, and G. E. Bridges, "Finite-difference analysis of dispersive transmission lines within a circuit simulator," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., Vol. 21, No. 1, January 2006.
12. Gustavsen, B. and A. Semlyen, "Rational approximation of frequency-domain responses by vector fitting," IEEE Trans. Power Del., Vol. 14, No. 3, 1052-1061, July 1999. doi:10.1109/61.772353
13. Yee, K., "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media," IEEE Transactions on Antenaas and Propagation, Vol. 14, 302-307, 1966. doi:10.1109/TAP.1966.1138693
14. Belganche, Z., A. Maaouni, A. Mzerd, and A. Bouziane, "Equivalent model from two layers stratified media to homogeneous media for overhead lines," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 41, 63-72, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERM14121509
15. Stratton, J. A., Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1941.
16. Bridges, G. E. J. and L. Shafai, "Plane wave coupling to multiple conductor transmission lines above a lossy earth," IEEE Trans. On Electromagn. Compat., Vol. 31, No. 1, 21-33, February 1989. doi:10.1109/15.19904
17. Ametani, A., N. Nagaoka, Y. Baba, T. Ohno, and K. Yamabuki, Power System Transients: Theory and Applications, CRC Press, 2013. doi:10.1201/b15816
18. Davidson, D. B., Computational Electromagnetics for RF and Microwave Engineering, 6–7, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2005.
19. Nakagawa, M., "Further studies on wave propagation along overhead transmission lines: Effect of admittance correction," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 100, July 1981.
20. Kikuchi, H., "Electromagnetic field on infinite wire at high frequencies above plane-wave," IEE Japan, Vol. 77, No. 825, 721-733, 1959.
21. Kikuchi, H., "Wave propagation on the ground return circuit in high frequency regions," J. IEE Japan, Vol. 75, No. 805, 1176-1187, 1955.
22. Borecki, M., J. Starzyski, and Z. Krawczyk, "The comparative analysis of selected overvoltage protection measures for medium voltage overhead lines with covered conductors," Progress in Applied Electrical Engineering (PAEE), 1-4, 2017.