This work reports the application of a microwave sensor in measuring human blood glucose concentration. The main contribution of this work lies on the blood glucose profile which is collected from 69 random patients regardless of their gender, age, and haematology properties, instead of using water as the base or focusing on a single person. Hence the blood glucose profile is more realistic. Blood is extracted from the participants and dropped at the center of the dumbbells section of a microstrip defected ground structure to gather the notch frequency shifting data. On the other hand, the blood samples are measured using Omron Freestyle Glucometer to collect their associated blood glucose readings. Five predicting models have been proposed in this work. Based on the cross-validation, it is found that the blood glucose level can be correlated very well with shifted notch frequency by using a linear model. It introduces least root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.0592 and shows good correlation (R2 = 0.9356) between the reading from commercial glucometer and microwave sensor in the range up to 12 mmol/L. The reliability of this microwave sensor is proven once again when the predicted blood glucose data are all falling in Zone A of Clarke Error Grid. The outcome of this work shows the capability of this microwave sensor in measuring the blood glucose level. Since this microwave sensor can be reused under a proper cleaning procedure, it improves the sustainability of conventional blood glucose testing by reducing the disposal of testing strips and cost. It is believed that this sensor will be suitable for extensive blood glucose testing conducted in the laboratory.
5. Skyler, J. S., et al., "Differentiation of diabetes by pathophysiology, natural history, and prognosis," Diabetes, Vol. 66, No. 2, 241-255, 2017. doi:10.2337/db16-0806
6. Parish, R. and K. F. Petersen, "Mitochondrial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes," Curr. Diab. Rep., Vol. 5, No. 3, 177-183, Jun. 2005. doi:10.1007/s11892-005-0006-3
7. Baz, B., J. P. Riveline, and J. F. Gautier, "Gestational diabetes mellitus: Definition, aetiological and clinical aspects," Eur. J. Endocrinol., Vol. 174, No. 2, R43-R51, 2016. doi:10.1530/EJE-15-0378
8. Catalano, P. M., "Trying to understand gestational diabetes," Diabet. Med., Vol. 31, No. 3, 273-281, Mar. 2014. doi:10.1111/dme.12381
9. Nery, E. W., M. Kundys, P. S. Jeleń, and M. Jönsson-Niedziólka, "Electrochemical glucose sensing: Is there still room for improvement?," Anal. Chem., Vol. 88, No. 23, 11271-11282, Dec. 2016. doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03151
10. Schwerthoeffer, U., R. Weigel, and D. Kissinger, "A highly sensitive glucose biosensor based on a microstrip ring resonator," 2013 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications, IMWS-BIO 2013 --- Proceedings, 2013.
11. Chretiennot, T., D. Dubuc, and K. Grenier, "Microwave-based microfluidic sensor for non-destructive and quantitative glucose monitoring in aqueous solution," Sensors (Switzerland), Vol. 16, No. 10, 1733, 2016. doi:10.3390/s16101733
12. Mondal, D., N. K. Tiwari, and M. J. Akhtar, "Microwave assisted non-invasive microfluidic biosensor for monitoring glucose concentration," Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, Vol. 2018, Oct. 2018.
13. Ebrahimi, A., W. Withayachumnankul, S. F. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, "Microwave microfluidic sensor for determination of glucose concentration in water," Mediterranean Microwave Symposium, Vol. 2015, Jan. 2015.
14. Camli, B., E. Kusakci, B. Lafci, S. Salman, H. Torun, and A. Yalcinkaya, "A microwave ring resonator based glucose sensor," Procedia Engineering, Vol. 168, 465-468, 2016. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.127
15. Harnsoongnoen, S. and A. Wanthong, "Coplanar waveguide transmission line loaded with electric-LC resonator for determination of glucose concentration sensing," IEEE Sens. J., Vol. 17, No. 6, 1635-1640, 2017. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2017.2652121
16. Abedeen, Z. and P. Agarwal, "Microwave sensing technique based label-free and real-time planar glucose analyzer fabricated on FR4," Sensors Actuators A: Phys., Vol. 279, 132-139, 2018. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2018.06.011
17. Lin, T., "Non-invasive glucose monitoring: A review of challenges and recent advances," Curr. Trends Biomed. Eng. Biosci., Vol. 6, No. 5, 2017. doi:10.19080/CTBEB.2017.06.555696
18. Choi, H., et al., "Design and in vitro interference test of microwave noninvasive blood glucose monitoring sensor," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 63, No. 10, 3016-3025, 2015. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2015.2472019
19. Jean, B. R., E. C. Green, and M. J. McClung, "A microwave frequency sensor for non-invasive blood-glucose measurement," 2008 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, SAS-2008 --- Proceedings, 4-7, 2008. doi:10.1109/SAS.2008.4472932
20. Choi, H., S. Luzio, J. Beutler, and A. Porch, "Microwave noninvasive blood glucose monitoring sensor: Human clinical trial results," IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 876-879, 2017.
21. Choi, H., S. Luzio, J. Beutler, and A. Porch, "Microwave noninvasive blood glucose monitoring sensor: Penetration depth and sensitivity analysis," IMBioc 2018 --- 2018 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Biomedical Conference, 52-54, 2018.
22. Choi, H., J. Nylon, S. Luzio, J. Beutler, and A. Porc, "Design of continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring sensor based on a microwave split ring resonator," Conference Proceedings --- 2014 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on: RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedic, 2015.
23. Shao, J., F. Yang, F. Xia, Q. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "A novel miniature spiral sensor for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring," 2016 10th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2016, 2016.
24. Baghbani, R., M. A. Rad, and A. Pourziad, "Microwave sensor for non-invasive glucose measurements design and implementation of a novel linear," IET Wirel. Sens. Syst., Vol. 5, No. 2, 51-57, Apr. 2015. doi:10.1049/iet-wss.2013.0099
25. Turgul, V. and I. Kale, "Influence of fingerprints and finger positioning on accuracy of RF blood glucose measurement from fingertips," Electron. Lett., Vol. 53, No. 4, 218-220, Feb. 2017. doi:10.1049/el.2016.4327
26. Turgul, V. and I. Kale, "A novel pressure sensing circuit for non-invasive RF/microwave blood glucose sensors," Mediterranean Microwave Symposium, 2017.
27. Nakamura, M., T. Tajima, M. Seyama, and K.Waki, "A noninvasive blood glucose measurement by microwave dielectric spectroscopy: Drift correction technique," IMBioc 2018 --- 2018 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Biomedical Conference, 85-87, 2018.
28. Karacolak, T., E. C. Moreland, and E. Topsakal, "Cole-cole model for glucose-dependent dielectric properties of blood plasma for continuous glucose monitoring," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 55, No. 5, 1160-1164, May 2013. doi:10.1002/mop.27515
29. Wang, H. C. and A. R. Lee, "Recent developments in blood glucose sensors," J. Food Drug Anal., Vol. 23, No. 2, 191-200, Jun. 2015. doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2014.12.001
30. Kim, J., A. S. Campbell, and J. Wang, "Wearable non-invasive epidermal glucose sensors: A review," Talanta, Vol. 177, 163-170, Jan. 2018. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2017.08.077
31. Khandelwal, M. K., B. K. Kanaujia, and S. Kumar, "Defected ground structure: Fundamentals, analysis, and applications in modern wireless trends," Int. J. Antennas Propag., Vol. 2017, 1-22, 2017. doi:10.1155/2017/2018527
33. Johnson, K. A. and R. S. Goody, "The original Michaelis constant: Translation of the 1913 Michaelis-Menten Paper," Biochemistry, Vol. 50, No. 39, 8264-8269, Oct. 2011. doi:10.1021/bi201284u
34. Clarke, W. L., "The original clarke error grid analysis (EGA)," Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, Vol. 7, No. 5, 776-779, 2005. doi:10.1089/dia.2005.7.776
35. Vrba, J., D. Vrba, L. Díaz, and O. Fišer, "Metamaterial sensor for microwave non-invasive blood glucose monitoring," IFMBE Proceedings, Vol. 68, No. 3, 789-792, 2019. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-9023-3_143