The unique bow-tie shaped pentagonal slit microstrip patch antenna has been particularly developed, manufactured, and tested for defense applications such as gunner training systems. The substrate is made of 3.2 mm thick FR4 material with a dielectric constant of 4.3. With a conductivity of 5.96×107 Siemens/m copper is used as a pentagonal bow tie patch. During the training period of MANPADS, previously wired system is used, and it is replaced by a completely wireless system with a specially designed antenna along with an ultrasonic sensor and processor unit. The innovation of antenna is pentagonal slit created on patch, and it increases fringing effects. It attains 6.523 GHz with a return loss of -22.5 dB, maximum gain of 5.84 dB, and better VSWR of 1.16. CST Microwave Studio 2016 simulates the proposed antenna characteristics such as gain, return loss, radiation pattern, and VSWR.
Dhamodharan Sriram Kumar,
"A Pentagonal Slit Bow-Tie Patch Antenna with a Novelty Design for MANPADS Guiding Simulator for Defense," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M,
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