A new type of waveguide based on the gap waveguide concept is here proposed and called gap-groove waveguide. Its design is based on the realization of a groove on a metal, facing an artificial surface which creates a high impedance surface (HIS) boundary condition. This condition is achieved here by employing a structure of closely packed metallic pins, known as bed of nails. The type of modes that can propagate in the gapgroove waveguide are similar to the ones of a standard waveguide but in this case there is no need of electrical connection. This is a potential advantage, especially when working at high frequencies. The dispersion characteristic of the gap-groove waveguide is derived by solving an eigenvalue problem, settled through a resonance condition at the interface between the groove and the bed of nails. The eigenvalues are associated with the modes propagating in the waveguide, and their dispersion characteristic is analyzed and compared with full wave simulations. A procedure to maximize the bandwidth is also provided, based on an appropriate choice of the geometrical parameters. Furthermore, the field distribution and the modal impedance of the fundamental mode are investigated.
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