This paper proposes a double negative metamaterial surface as a superstrate for a multilayer cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (MCDRA). The aim is to achieve a broadband and high gain Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) antenna that can be used in harsh propagation areas to satisfy all the requirements for the 60 GHz wireless communications offering a bandwidth of 7 GHz in the unlicensed ISM band (57−65 GHz), permitting to reach data rates of 10 Gbit/s and more. To meet these objectives various techniques are combined. Numerical and experimental results showed satisfactory performances with achievable impedance bandwidth of more than 10.5% (from 58.1 to 64.2 GHz) and a 18 dBi gain, an enhancement of 13 dBi compared to a homogenous DRA without metamaterial superstrate. The proposed antenna exhibits directive and stable radiation pattern in the entire operating band.
1. Rappaport, T. S., J. Murdock, and F. Gutierre, "State of the art in 60-GHz integrated circuits and systems for wireless communications," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 99, No. 8, 1390-1436, 2011. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2011.2143650
2. Smulders, P. F. M., "60 GHz radio: Prospects and future directions," Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium Benelux Chapter on Communications and Vehicular Technology, 1-8, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 2003.
3. Petosa, A., A. Ittipiboon, Y. M. Antar, and D. Roscoe, "Recent advances in dielectric resonator antenna technology," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 40, No. 3, 35-48, Jun. 1998. doi:10.1109/74.706069
4. Vettikalladi, H., O. Lafond, and M. Himdi, "High-efficient and high-gain superstrate antenna for 60-GHz indoor communication," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagat. Lett., Vol. 8, 1422-1425, 2009. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2010.2040570
5. Thvenot, C. and R. Jecko, "Directive photonic band gap antenna," IEEE Trans. on Microwaves Theory and Tech., Vol. 47, 2115-2122, Nov. 1999.
6. Denidni, T. A., Y. Coulibaly, and H. Boutayeb, "Hybrid dielectric resonator with circular musroom like stucture for gain improvement," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 57, No. 4, 1043-1049, Apr. 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2015809
7. Elkarkraoui, T., G. Y. Delisle, N. Hakem, and Y. Coulibaly, "New hybrid design for a broadband high gain 60-GHz dielectric resonator antenna," 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP’2013), 2379-2382, Gothenburg, Sude, 2013.
8. Chen, X., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, "Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev., Vol. 70, No. 1, 016608.17, 2004. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.70.014501
9. Saenz, E., R. Gonzalo, I. Ederra, J. C. Vardaxoglou, and P. de Maagt, "Resonant meta-surface superstrate for single and multi-frequency dipole antenna arrays," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, 951-960, 2008. doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.919212
10. Esselle, K. P. and T. S. Bird, "A hybrid-resonator antenna: Experimental results," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 53, 870-871, 2005. doi:10.1109/TAP.2004.841325
11. Kishk, A., Y. Yin, and A. W. Glisson, "Conical dielectric resonator antennas for wide-band applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 50, 469-474, 2002. doi:10.1109/TAP.2002.1003382
12. Ge, Y., K. P. Esselle, and T. S. Bird, "A wide band probe-fed stacked dielectric resonator antenna," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 48, No. 8, 1630-1633, Aug. 8, 2006. doi:10.1002/mop.21716
13. Huang, W. and A. A. Kishk, "Compact wideband multi-layer cylindrical dielectric resonator antennas," IET Microw. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 1, 998-1005, Oct. 2007.
14. Kaklamani, D. I., "Full-wave analysis of a Fabry-Parot type resonator," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 24, 279-310, 1999. doi:10.2528/PIER99042601
15. Walters, K. A. and G. W. Hanson, "Resonant frequency calculation for inhomogeneous dielectric resonators using volume integral equations and face-centered node points," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 32, No. 5, 356-359, 2002. doi:10.1002/mop.10176
16. Mongia, R. K. and P. Bhartia, "Dielectric resonator antennas a review and general design relations for resonant frequency and bandwidth," International Journal of Microwave and Millimeter-wave Computer-aided Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 3, 230-247, Mar. 1994. doi:10.1002/mmce.4570040304
17. Long, A., M. W. McAllister, and L. C. Shen, "The resonant cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 31, No. 3, 406-412, May 1983. doi:10.1109/TAP.1983.1143080
18. Glisson, A. W., D. Kajfez, and J. James, "Evaluation of modes in dielectric resonators using a surface integral equation formulation," IEEE Trans. on Microwaves Theory and Tech., Vol. 31, No. 12, 1023-1029, 1983. doi:10.1109/TMTT.1983.1131656
19. Han, T. C., M. K. A. Rahim, T. Masri, and M. N. A. Karim, "Left handed metamaterial design for microstrip antenna application," Microwave Conference, Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, 1-4, Bangkok, Thailand, 2007.
20. Ziolkowski, R. W., "Design, fabrication, and testing of double negative metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 51, 1516-1529, 2003. doi:10.1109/TAP.2003.813622
21. Feresidis, A. P. and J. C. Vardaxoglou, "High gain planar antenna using optimized partially reflective surfaces," IEE Proceedings — Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 148, No. 6, 345-350, Dec. 2001. doi:10.1049/ip-map:20010828
22. Szabo, S., G.-H. Park, R. Hedge, and E.-P. Li, "A unique extraction of metamaterial parameters based on Kramers-Kronig relationship," IEEE Trans. on Microwaves Theory and Tech., Vol. 58, No. 10, 2646-2653, Oct. 2010. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2010.2065310
23. Franson, S. J. and R. W. Ziolkowski, "Giga-bit per second data transfer in high-gain metamaterial structures at 60 GHz," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 57, No. 10, 2913-2925, 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2029277
24. Vettikalladi, H., L. Le Coq, O. Lafond, and M. Himd, "High-effcient slot-coupled superstrate antenna for 60 GHz WLAN applications," Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 1-5, 2010.
25. Coulibaly, Y., M. Nedil, I. Ben Mabrouk, L. Talbi, and T. A. Denidni, "High gain rectangular dielectric resonator for broadband millimeter-waves underground communications," Publication on Canadian Conference Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), 1088-1091, 2011.
26. Hosseini, S. A., F. Capolino, and F. De Flaviis, "Design of a single-feed 60 GHz planar metallic Fabry-Perot cavity antenna with 20 dB gain," Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT’ 09), 1-4, Santa Monica, Calif, USA, Mar. 2009.