Distributed antenna arrays are arbitrarily large groups of neighboring nodes which are controlled to form virtual antenna arrays for both transmission and reception. Distributed beamforming (DBF) is widely used in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and distributed massive Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. The research in DBF has been divided into four major research trends: radiation pattern analysis, optimization of power and lifetime, nodes synchronization, and array design. In this paper, a new algorithm is introduced to synthesize the radiation pattern of an arbitrarily distributed array using reduced number of distributed nodes. In this context, the reduction in the number of nodes results in minimizing the synchronization complexity between the synthesized array nodes and in minimizing the number of RF front ends. Thus, the overall system cost is reduced. In this algorithm, the three antenna array parameters (number of nodes, nodes locations, and nodes excitations) are properly adjusted to construct a close copy of the original array pattern. Different nodes selection ways are utilized to select the nodes required to synthesize the array for a desired radiation pattern. Also, uniform feeding and non-uniform feeding scenarios are introduced. In simulations, the proposed algorithm is applied to the synthesis of pencil-beam patterns. The simulation results reveal that the synthesized radiation patterns highly agree with the ordinary distributed array pattern in the case of non-uniform feeding. Also, the proposed algorithm can be applied to the synthesis of shaped-beam patterns via controlling the three aforementioned antenna array parameters and taking the shaped-beam pattern as the desired pattern in the algorithm.
Heba Soliman Dawood,
Amr Hussein Hussein Abdullah,
Mohmoud Ahmed Attia Ali,
"A New Synthesis Algorithm for Minimization of Coplanar Distributed Antenna Arrays in WSNs
," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,
Vol. 87, 73-85, 2018. doi:10.2528/PIERC18061104
1. Huang, J., P. Wang, and Q. Wan, "Collaborative beamforming for wireless sensor networks with arbitrary distributed sensors," IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 16, No. 7, 1118-1120, 2012. doi:10.1109/LCOMM.2012.050912.120370
2. Valenzuela-Valdes, J., F. Luna, R. Luque-Baena, and P. Padilla, "Saving energy in WSNs with beamforming," Proc. IEEE 3rd Int. Conf., 255-260, Cloud Netw., (CloudNet), 2014.
3. Jung, H. and I.-H. Lee, "Analog cooperative beamforming with spherically-bound random arrays for physical-layer secure communications," IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 22, No. 3, 546-549, 2018. doi:10.1109/LCOMM.2017.2782807
4. Ma, N. N., K. Buchanan, J. Jensen, and G. Huff, "Distributed beamforming from triangular planar random antenna arrays," MILCOM 2015 --- 2015 IEEE Military Communications Conference, 553-558, 2015. doi:10.1109/MILCOM.2015.7357501
5. Bhattacharyya, A. K., Phased Array Antennas: Floquet Analysis, Synthesis, BFNs and Active Array Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
6. Madhow, U., D. R. Brown, S. Dasgupta, and R. Mudumbai, "Distributed massive MIMO: Algorithms, architectures and concept systems," 2014 Information Theory and Applications Workshop (ITA), 1-7, 2014.
7. Zhang, X., D. Wang, L. Bai, and C. Chen, "Collaborative relay beamforming based on minimum power for M2M devices in multicell systems," International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Vol. 9, No. 12, 293565, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/293565
8. Ochiai, H., P. Mitran, H. V. Poor, and V. Tarokh, "Collaborative beamforming for distributed wireless ad hoc sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 53, No. 11, 4110-4124, 2005. doi:10.1109/TSP.2005.857028
9. Sun, G., Y. Liu, A. Wang, J. Zhang, X. Zhou, and Z. Liu, "Sidelobe control by node selection algorithm based on virtual linear array for collaborative beamforming in WSNs," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 90, No. 3, 1443-1462, 2016. doi:10.1007/s11277-016-3403-9
10. Liang, S., T. Feng, G. Sun, J. Zhang, and H. Zhang, "Transmission power optimization for reducing sidelobe via bat-chicken swarm optimization in distributed collaborative beamforming," 2016 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC), 2164-2168, 2016. doi:10.1109/CompComm.2016.7925083
11. Jayaprakasam, S., S. K. A. Rahim, and C. Y. Leow, "Distributed and collaborative beamforming in wireless sensor networks: Classifications, trends, and research directions," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2092-2116, 2017. doi:10.1109/COMST.2017.2720690
12. Jayaprakasam, S., S. K. B. A. Rahim, and C. Y. Leow, "A pareto elite selection genetic algorithm for random antenna array beamforming with low sidelobe level," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 51, 407-425, 2013. doi:10.2528/PIERB13032008
13. Liu, Y., Z. Nie, and Q. H. Liu, "Reducing the number of elements in a linear antenna array by the matrix pencil method," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 9, 2955-2962, Sep. 2008. doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.928801
14. Liu, Y., Q. H. Liu, and Z. Nie, "Reducing the number of elements in the synthesis of shaped-beam patterns by the forward-backward matrix pencil method," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 58, No. 2, 604-608, Nov. 2010.
15. Hussein, A., H. Abdullah, A. Salem, S. Khamis, and M. Nasr, "Optimum design of linear antenna arrays using a hybrid MoM/GA algorithm," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 1232-1235, 2011. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2011.2174189
16. Isernia, T. and A. F. Morabito, "Mask-constrained power synthesis of linear arrays with even excitations," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 64, No. 7, 3212-3217, 2016. doi:10.1109/TAP.2016.2556712